Artichoke is a 50-150 cm tall herbaceous plant blooming blue-purple flowers from the chamomile family. Its scientific name is Cynara scolymus. It grows around Southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Their bodies are upright, strong, hard and longitudinal grooved. Its leaves are sessile, large, long-oval and fragmented. The flowers were collected in large spikes at the ends of the long stems, coming out of the seat of the upper leaves. The flower tray is meaty. They all carry the tubular flowers and the feathers between them.
The English use of the artichoke comes from the northern Italian word “articiocco” in the sixteenth century. When we trace the artichoke in history, it is possible to go back to quite old times. Traces of being used by the Ancient Greeks and Romans are available in written records. It is referred to as a garden plant by Homer and Hesiodos in the 8th century BC. Artichoke seeds planted in North Africa, where it is still wild, were found during the excavation of the Roman era “Mons Claudianus” in Egypt. The Romans called the vegetable the carduus.
The countries where artichoke cultivation is the most intense in the world today are the ones that limit the Mediterranean basin. The top European producing countries are Italy, Spain and France, respectively. The most produced countries in the American continent are Argentina, Peru and the USA. Recently, in South Africa, the artichoke grows in a small town called Parys, located along the Vaal River. In the United States, California is the only place where artichoke is grown, and about 80% of it is grown in the county of Monterey. There, Castroville declares himself the “Artichoke Center of the World” and organizes the annual Castroville Artichoke Festival.
Since artichoke is rich in antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, it helps regulate circulation, digestive system and blood pressure. Artichoke also cleans the blood. It lowers bad cholesterol and keeps good cholesterol in balance. Of course, in order to benefit from these benefits, consuming them once in a while will not be enough. We can see these healthy effects as a result of regular consumption once a week. Artichoke has a fibrous structure. Fibrous foods also support our body’s digestive system functions. When artichoke is consumed for this reason, it makes the stomach and bowel movements work better. Artichoke is also rich in amino acids. For this reason, it ensures that the acid ratio of the stomach remains in balance. Artichoke cleans the stomach and intestines and prevents bloating and gas formation.
When blood cells are strong, the blood flow in the body progresses at a balanced level. In order to strengthen blood cells, it is necessary to consume foods rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, and copper. In this respect, it is necessary to consume artichoke. Copper is also important for the production and maintenance of red blood cells. There is a lot of artichoke in copper. The presence of antioxidant properties of artichoke not only helps in terms of blood, but also helps to clean the internal organs in the body and increase its functions. Artichoke is a low in calories and fat, and is rich in fiber. It is rich in vitamins and minerals, has an amino acid feature, a fiber store, and supports the weight loss process, as it nourishes the body and keeps it full.
Artichoke, rich in antioxidants, is liver friendly. For this reason, artichokes are included in liver detox recipes. Let’s share the liver detox recipe: Boil 3-5 artichoke leaf leaves and 2-3 artichoke stems in half a liter of water for 5-10 minutes. Remove the leaves from the water. Squeeze 5 lemons into the water. Add 1 teaspoon of turmeric, 1 teaspoon of honey, 2 teaspoons of dandelion. Consume morning and evening for 1 week. This cure is recommended for cleansing the liver.
Artichoke contains 22% vitamin K. In other words, thanks to a portion of artichoke consumption, you will meet your daily vitamin K requirement. Thanks to regular consumption of artichokes, our bones become stronger. It is recommended that especially developing children and elderly people consume it regularly. Because artichoke is rich in vitamins and antioxidants, it is important for protecting cell health and cell functionality. Thanks to the renewal of the cells, it delays skin aging.
We would like to give some advice to those who use artichokes It is enough to consume one serving twice a week. Consuming too much artichoke can cause diarrhea and dehydration in the body. If you have any disease or medication you are using, the juice of the artichoke stalk and leaf should consult a doctor. You should also consult your doctor during pregnancy and lactation.
Artichoke is a warm climate vegetable. At temperatures lower than -5, -6 C, the aboveground parts are partially frozen. Hot and dry weather causes the heads to open and their quality to deteriorate. The best product is taken when the weather is cloudy and cool. Artichoke cravings are not a selective plant. But he prefers deep, loamy-sandy soils. The soil should be well drained and have a usable water capacity. The most suitable fertilization is fertilization according to the results of the soil analysis. Since artichoke is a perennial plant, every year, during spring and autumn shoot cleaning, shovel farm fertilizer is given to the commercial fertilizers and quarries according to the results of the analysis, and the throats of the plants are filled. While all of the farm manure and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are given before planting, nitrogen fertilizers should be given in three times. The first part is in planting, the second is when the first starts, and the third part; should be given during the wake-up irrigation period.
Artichokes are generally produced in 3 ways:
1-Producing with bastards: It is done by separating and planting seedlings that have been applied from the eyes called the breast in the main log. It can take 15-20 bastards from each root. Bastards 25-40 cm long are suitable for planting. However, when separating from the root, attention should be paid to the root separation, and their tops should be cut and planted.
2-Production with nozzles: It is a production method with root parts containing eyes. Root pieces with a diameter of 5-7.5cm and a minimum length of 15cm taken from old plants are taken and planted.
3-Seed Production: 2-3 seeds are sown in tubes with mortar. Life water is given. Seedlings from the seed are planted on prepared quarries.
In the new Artichoke plantations to be established, the soil should be plowed and fertilized before planting. The soil should be prepared for planting by pulling the disc harrow and rake after the deep release. Planting is generally done in the Mediterranean and Aegean regions in October – November, and in the Marmara region in March – April. The most suitable planting is done on the bobbins between the row and above 1×1 m. Since artichoke is a perennial plant, the bottoms of the plants are opened every year in the first and fall. Strong 1 to 2 shoots are left. Other shoots are taken by cutting from the stem rooted. 6-10 shoots are obtained from each artichoke plant that can be used for planting. During the shoot cleaning in autumn and spring, the interval between the plants is hoeed, weed cleaning is done. Irrigation is important for the growth of heads and quality. If precipitation is not enough in the development phase, it should be watered.
Harvesting in the artichoke should be done during the period when it starts to get its normal size but the brackets are not opened. If the harvest is delayed, the brackets open, the flower tray gains a fibrous structure and loses its market value. Beginning from harvest maturity should be harvested with stems 5 to 10 cm long.