The bean ranks first in the world among edible legumes in terms of cultivation area and production. In addition to dry grains, it is widely consumed as fresh vegetables. The beans cultivation areas in the world are approximately 27 million ha and its production is around 19 million tons.
Considering the continents, the largest cultivation area and production are on the Asian continent. However, grain yield is highest in the continent of America. Considering the cultivation area and production status by country, India ranks first. Brazil, Mexico, China, USA are other important dry bean producing countries in the world. Although bean farming is common in developing countries, its yield is higher in developed countries.
There is about 90% water in fresh fruits and grains. Although the rate of crude protein in dry grains varies according to cultivar and cultivation technique, it is 22% on average. Bean protein is rich in Lysin, Leucine, isoleucine amino acids, and poor in Methionin, Tryptophan and Cystine. Grain contains more vitamin A (carotene) and vitamin C during green maturity period and less during dry maturity period.
Some researchers reported the origin of the beans as India and some researchers as Australia and Africa. However, it has been suggested and finally accepted that the origin of the beans is America. Although the wild form of today’s culture bean is not fully known, it is estimated that there are single or perennial cuddling forms in Mexico and Central America. There are no dwarf beans in the stunted forms and it is stated that they are the result of mutation. Beans were brought to Europe by the Spanish after the discovery of America and passed to Asia from here.
The bean is a subspecies of the Papilionoideae subfamily of the Leguminosae family, belonging to the Phaseolus genus of the Phaseolea tribe. The main cultivars in the world are of American origin, with white or red flowers, fruit tips, beak, fine pointed and small, plant-sized. The main types are:
1. P. acitufolius A. Gray (Tepary bean): It is one year old. The trunk grows semi-flat, the plant can grow up to 10-20 cm in stunted forms and 2 m in wrapper types. The seedling condition is epigeal. Seed shape can be round or cylindrical, seed color is white, yellow or brown. 3.5 kg seed is used per decare in planting. Grain yield is 50-80kg / da.
2. P. coccineus L. (Runner bean): Recognized as a fire or Spanish bean. Cuddling forms are perennial. The body can be up to 4m long. Stunted forms are annual and plant height is 60 cm. Self and foreign fertilization is observed. Wrapping forms are used in garden agriculture, stunted forms are used in field agriculture. Roots are tuber. The flowers are generally red and large. The seedling condition is hypogeal.
3. P. lunatus (Lima or siava bean): One-year, 90 cm tall. Two forms are common. Lima beans are coarse grained and the morphological structure of the plant is large. Lima beans are mostly used for vegetable purposes. Morphological structure and grain of Sieva beans is smaller than Lima beans.
4. P. vulgaris (Common bean): It is the most known and cultivated species in the world. There are cuddle and scrub forms. Pods of delusionalists are used in garden agriculture for green vegetable purposes, stunted forms are used in field agriculture for dry grain. In addition, P. Vulgaris has been classified by various researchers according to the morphological and grain characteristics of the plant.
The bean has a weak and branching pile root system. The root, which develops fast until my flowers, slows down in the flowering period. Although the root system is generally faced, it can sometimes go deep depending on the variety and soil conditions. Bean roots contain spherical nodules formed by Rhizobium phaseoli bacteria. The number of nodules is highest during the flowering period.
The bean body is upright or wrapped in herbaceous structure, gnarled and slightly pubescent. The trunk is round from the soil surface to the first knuckle, after which it is angular. The stem can be yellowish green, usually reddish or purple in colored seeds. In the wrapper forms, the main stem is thin and wrapper and does not branch much. Plant height is 20-50 cm in dwarf types, 50-100 cm in side wrappers. in lantern forms, it is between 150-300 cm. In stunted types, the number of knuckles is high and the knuckles are short. There are leeches at the ends of branches, and inflorescences on leaf seats. The maturation of the pods is not suitable for garden cultivation, which are mostly grown for green vegetables. Due to its simultaneous maturation, it is more suitable for dry grain production and machine harvest.The plant height is between 20-50 cm.
After germination in beans, the first leaves, consisting of two opposed leaflets, appear on the cotyledon leaves. Then the main leaves with three leaves are seen. The middle leaflet shape varies according to the varieties and the tip can be oval, pointed or short. There are six triangular-shaped atria in each leaf, two where the petiole meets the branch, two where the two petioles meet the petiole, and two where the middle petiole meets its petiole. Although the leaf hairiness varies according to the varieties, the lower surface of the leaves is more hairy than the upper surface. In the stunted forms, the leaves in the first knuckles of the plant are large and gradually become smaller in the next knuckles. At the end of ripening, although the leaf area shows little fall, many leaves remain on the plant. In wrapper forms, with the start of flowering, the leaves begin to fall from the bottom up and all the leaflets fall out at the end of the development.
The flowers come out of the leaf seats. The flower community shape is panicle. The number of flowers in the bunch is between 3-15. The inflorescences can be in three different shapes, rosette-shaped, cluster-shaped, and passage type between the two, depending on the attachment of the flower stalks to the cluster stems. The bean contains 5 bowls, 5 petals and 10 male organs. The crown leaf consists of 2 rowboats, 2 fins and 1 flag leaf. The tip of the boat is partially spiral curved. The flower color can be white, red, purple or blue. The male organ status is dialdelphous. Flowering occurs from bottom to top in the plant and panicle. Although the flower is fertilized by itself, foreign pollination is seen in 1-2%.
The fruit is formed by the development of the outer wall of the ovary. Bean fruit is also called broad beans and beans. Bean fruits are consumed while they are fresh. The hardness of the bean pods, the thickness of the fibers at the seam, the fleshiness of the fruit are the factors that make up the quality. The fruits are green while they are fresh. As it matures, it turns brown. In varieties with colored seed pod, colors, spots and spots occur as the fruit ripens. Fruit color and shape are affected by cultivation technique besides variety. Fruit length is 8-12 cm, width varies between 6.0-25.0 mm. The number of fruits in the plant depends on the variety and cultivation technique, on average, it is between 4-23 pieces. In the dwarf types, most of the pods are located on the side branches, while in the wrapper types, the number of pods on the main stem is higher than the side branches. The fruit shape of the beans can be straight, curved and S. The cross section of the fruit can be flat, elliptical, elliptical, fleshy or round fleshy.