“Latin: Serpentes” are long, footless carnivorous reptiles belonging to the order “Latin: Squamata”.
Members of the Serpentes suborder are distinguished from footless lizards by the absence of outer ears and eyelids. Like all scales, snakes are ectothermic amniotic vertebrates covered with overlapping scales. Most snake species have a skull with far more joints than their ancestor lizards. These snakes allow them to swallow prey larger than their own head with their highly mobile jaws. To accommodate their narrow bodies properly, snakes’ paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one on top of the other rather than side by side, and most have one functional lung. Some species have a pelvic arch with a pair of claws left over on either side of the cloaca.
Snakes are found all over the world except Antarctica and most islands. It has fifteen families identified, comprising 456 genera and over 2900 species.   The size ranges from the tiny Leptotyphlops carlae, which is 10 cm long, to pythons and anacondas that can reach 7.6 meters in length. The fossil of the last discovered Titanoboa genus was 15 meters long. It is thought that snakes evolved from both digger and aquatic lizards during the Cretaceous period. The diversification of modern snakes took place in the Paleocene period. 47 species of snakes found in Turkey. Most snakes are non-venomous, and venomous snakes also use their venom primarily to control and kill prey rather than defense. Some have poison strong enough to cause painful injury and death to humans. Non-venomous snakes either swallow their prey alive or squeeze it to kill. It is difficult for amateurs to characterize snakes as non-venomous by their appearance, and it is necessary to avoid them or approach a professional.
English word snake, from Proto-Indo-European root “s” nēg-o-, Old English snaca, itself Proto-Germanic snak-an- “cf. Germanic Schnake” ring snake “, Swedish snok” grass snake ” The Sanskrit nāgá “crawl”, which secretly gives as well as “snake”. The word adder contracted in meaning as the adder continued to narrow in meaning, but in Old English næddre was a generic word for snake. , From French, ultimately Indo-European * sprinkle- means “to crawl”, which means “crawl” in the Ancient Greek hérpō “ἕρπω”.
The fossil record of snakes is relatively poor because fossilization is rare, as snake skeletons are often small and fragile. Nevertheless, the 150-million-year-old species can easily be described as snakes with lizard-like skeletal structures unearthed in South America and Africa. On the basis of comparative anatomy there is consensus that snakes are descendants of lizards. Fossil evidence shows that snakes evolved from burrowing lizards, such as varan, or from a group like this in the Cretaceous period. A primitive fossil snake Najash rionegrina was a two-legged pit-cauldron animal with sacrum and entirely terrestrial. A modern-day analogue of these hypothetical ancestors is Lanthanotus, the earless monitor lizard of Borneo, although it is semi-aquatic.
Subterranean forms evolved to dig holes and evolved into bodies that lost their external limbs. According to this hypothesis, features such as transparent, fused eyelids, and the loss of outer ears evolved to overcome subterranean challenges such as scratching the corneas or filling the ears with soil. Some primitive snakes are known to have hind limbs, but their pelvic bones lack a direct connection to the spine. The hind limbs have been seen in fossil species such as Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis, and Eupodophis, which are slightly older than Najash.
Primitive groups among modern snakes, pythons, and boas have a pelvic protrusion that serves to grasp the dysfunctional hind limbs during mating. Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae are other groups that contain remnants of the pelvic arch. The axial skeleton of the common ancestor of snakes is regionally, like most other tetrapods, such as the cervical ‘neck’, thoracic ‘chest’, lumbar ‘lower back’, sacral ‘pelvis’ and caudal ‘tail’ spine. It had specialized structures.
General information snakes;
Snakes generally cannot see beyond three meters. They use their tongue, not their nostrils, to smell. Both ends of their long and bifurcated tongues absorb chemical odors from air and ground. When it is pulled in, the scents at the tip of the tongue are transformed into sensations in the Jacobin organ of the palate. Viper snakes follow the trail of the prey they poisoned with their tongues and find the dead body and swallow it. Since the nostrils of the snakes are on the air tube in the lower jaw when the mouth is closed, they breathe without opening their mouth. Since the mouth is open while swallowing their prey, their nostrils are disconnected from the air tube. At such times, they make use of the spare air in the air bags in their bodies. Most snakes have only the right lung developed, and the other has almost disappeared. In boa and python snakes the left lungs are small. When large prey takes a long time to swallow, the entrance of the trachea at the base of the mouth can be taken out of the mouth. This feature is an adaptation for eating large animals, allowing the snake to breathe even when its mouth is full.
Snakes have long been thought to be deaf because they have no outer ears. In fact, since there are bone connections between their jaws and ears, they can easily hear the vibrations reflected by the soil they are on. A rattlesnake with its chin on the ground can easily hear the footsteps of a horse from far away. When a person walks through the lands where snakes can be found, he will not encounter any snakes when he walks with loud foot strokes. Some snakes have two pits with thin membranes between their eyes and noses. They detect “infrared” heat waves emitted from the bodies of warm-blooded animals. Thanks to these, they find their prey even in the dark and follow them. Snake venom is a powerful digestive fluid that dissolves game meat. Even non-poisonous snakes have a strong digestive fluid that is poisonous. It causes burning and swelling due to their saliva when a finger is inserted or gumed in their mouth. In venomous snakes whose teeth are removed, teeth grow again. The colors and sizes of the snakes are varied. Although venomous snakes are said to have triangular heads and blunt tails, these cannot be sure signs. It is necessary to avoid them by considering every snake poisonous.
Reproduction of Snakes;
Snakes reproduce by laying eggs. Hatchlings similar to adults come out of the eggs. These look right around their heads. Most boa, anacondas and vipers give birth to their young. These are not real births. Since the eggs develop and open in the womb, it is seen as a birth. This is called (ovoviviparity). The gestation period is 2 months.
The erect hemipenis of the snakes that are mating or preparing to mate in Anatolia often cause the belief of (snakes have feet) by being mistaken for (feet) due to their double structure.
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