Broccoli is a family of Cabbage (Brassicaceae), a small green tubers, boiled and prepared. Its scientific name is Brassica oleracea italica. The name broccoli is derived from the word brachium (Italian braccio), which means “arm” in Latin.
Broccoli, as the name suggests, is a vegetable identified with the Italian peninsula. Described as a cabbage-like vegetable in the texts of the great historian Great Plinius, one of the Roman authors, and Apicius’s cookbook, it is estimated that broccoli is not definitive. Broccoli was seen as an exotic plant in Modern Europe, and its recognition in the world was realized only through Italian immigrants in the USA in the early 20th century. The Sicilian immigrant brothers D’Arrigo family imported a broccoli into the U.S. and embedded a huge commercial success in concrete, and also produced trial production in California. They have remained the number one broccoli producer and seller of the USA for a long time under the brand name “Andy Boy” created with the name of the son of the D’Arrigo family, and with the support of radio ads.
Broccoflower, a cauliflower crushed vegetable with broccoli, was first grown in Europe in 1988. Its appearance is similar to cauliflower, its taste is similar to broccoli.
Broccoli is a food source that contains high levels of dietary fiber and vitamins. In addition, its appearance is reminiscent of a miniature tree.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) data for 2008 regarding the highest cauliflower and broccoli production by countries are as follows; China 8,585,000 tons, India 5,014,500 tons, USA 1,240,710 tons.
Broccoli is one of the very useful vegetables for human health. It reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, especially cancer and heart diseases. This medicinal vegetable contains a large number of antioxidants that support healthy cells and tissues in the body, reduce oxidative stress. Thus, it strengthens the immune system and delays aging. It helps the body remove toxins. Broccoli is an alkaline vegetable that helps balance the body’s pH levels. It can be consumed raw and cooked. Preparing by light steaming is the most practical and ideal consumption method.
Bioactive compounds in broccoli content increase the body’s antioxidant capacity, show antimicrobial effects and decrease the risk of kidney cancer, prostate cancer, bladder and lung cancer. It contributes to the regression of enlarged tumors. It contains abundant folate. With this feature, it is protective against colon, stomach and cervical cancers. Sulforafan, a compound found in broccoli, is especially useful for breast, uterine and colon cancer by removing extra estrogen from the body. Because it is rich in vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus, it keeps bones and teeth strong. Contains vitamin C, calcium kemferol and periodontal, positively affects the health of the teeth. Consuming enough vitamin K increases calcium absorption and improves bone health. One cup of chopped broccoli provides all of your daily vitamin K needs and half of your daily calcium needs.
Consuming natural fiber foods such as broccoli supports gut health and prevents constipation. It increases insulin sensitivity and reduces the risk of colon cancer. It also protects the immune system and prevents inflammation. It regulates the daily excretion of toxins through fiber, bile and feces. Magnesium and vitamins in broccoli improve acidity, facilitate proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, reduce inflammation and relax the stomach. The chemferol compound in broccoli helps maintain healthy bacteria levels in the intestines and keep the stomach lining healthy. The antioxidants found in broccoli reduce the overall risk of heart attack and support heart health. Sulforafan and glucorafanine compounds bind to bile acids in the intestine to reduce bad cholesterol (LDL) levels and support the normal functioning of the heart. Elevated, “bad” cholesterol and triglyceride levels are effective in preventing negative risk factors for heart disease. The abundant amount of potassium and vitamin C helps prevent heart disease due to oxygen deficiency.
Broccoli, which contains lots of chromium, helps to release healthy insulin and thus regulates blood sugar control. It has been suggested that broccoli sprouts regulate insulin balance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sulfur and amino acids in broccoli cleans the blood and help remove free radicals such as uric acid and toxins. Broccoli relaxes blood circulation and raises libido. Broccoli, rich in iron and protein, prevents the development of anemia and is very useful for those with anemia problems. The compounds and vitamins in broccoli are very beneficial for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with the prevention of age-related eye conditions. Vitamin A deficiency can cause night blindness. Broccoli contains beta-carotene, which is converted into vitamin A in the body. These substances protect the eyes from macular degeneration and cataracts. A study has shown that the content of broccoli rich in beta-carotene reduces the likelihood of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) disease. Broccoli, which contains plenty of vitamin C, supports the immune system and prevents allergy symptoms. Vitamin C is essential in the formation of collagen, the main support system for the skin. Bioactive compounds in broccoli are protective against UV radiation damage that causes skin cancer. Vitamins A and C are essential vitamins for healthy hair. One cup of broccoli meets 84% of the daily vitamin C requirement.
When choosing broccoli, opt for bunches with bright green purple heads, compact flower clusters and tight stems. If you want to keep the broccoli, it is recommended to wipe the unwashed heads and wrap them in paper towels. You can cool it for no more than 2-3 days. To clean the broccoli thoroughly, soak it in vinegar for 10 minutes and rinse with plenty of water.
The immature green flower buds of broccoli, which are considered as vegetables, are adversely affected by dry and hot weather in summer and dry and hot weather in winter. In hot weather, even if the plant is good to grow, immature flower buds, which are considered as vegetables, do not show a normal development., Loosely formed shoots are formed, a few hours after harvest, they become puffed in flower buds. Broccoli cultivation is not economical in the summer months and where the average air temperature is above 20 ° C. Plants are not affected by the danger of frost in vegetative period. If the parts considered as vegetables are at harvest maturity, they will be damaged even by light frosts, flower buds turn brown and rot. The effects of day length on the development of broccoli and its parts evaluated as vegetables are not exactly known. Excessive precipitation has a positive effect on the development and quality of broccoli. Drought broccoli has a negative effect on immature flower stubs, causing the crown to be fibrous and of poor quality.
Broccoli is not a very selective plant in terms of soil requirements. However, it does not like loose and nutrient-poor soils. Soils rich in organic substances are suitable for broccoli cultivation. Poor soils should be enriched with compost or organic materials. Lime should be given when necessary. Cultivation should not be carried out in soils that hold very good water and have a pH value above 6.5. The production of broccoli is very similar to cabbage and cauliflower. Broccoli seeds are planted in seedling growing pans in mid-summer, as in cabbage and cauliflower. Preparation of seedling growing places, sowing seeds, cultural processes, preparation of main growing places, planting seedlings and cultural processes up to harvest are the same as in cabbage and cauliflower. The distance between plants is very important when planting seedlings in the main growing areas. The distance between plants to be applied in planting varies depending on whether the varieties are early or transient, the immature main (= hill) flower plots or the side shoots from the leaf seats will be harvested. Since early varieties form smaller plants, the distance between plants should be reduced.