The Dacian Wars describe two military campaigns against Dacia by the Roman Empire in the period between 101-102 and 105-106. It was built during the reign of Emperor Trajan to reduce the threat of Dacia and to conquer the fertile regions.
The Dacia region has been on the agenda of the Romans since the reign of Julius Caesar. When the Dacians, who lived in the northern part of Macedonia, crossed the Danube River in 85 AD and attacked the Moesia Superior  region, the Romans intervened and defeated the Dacians in the Battle of Tapae in 88, forcing peace. Even though the Dacian king Decebalus was reduced to a position protecting Roman borders by recognizing Roman sovereignty after the agreement, it will remain an element of resistance that could not be defeated.
In his first campaign against the independent Dacian king, Trajan will threaten the capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, which consists of castles. Wishing for mercy for peace, the king of Dacian gathered his forces and attacked the Romans again in the time without war. Thereupon, in 105, Trajan again marched on Dacia. After besieging the capital, he captures it and devastates the city. Repressing the uprising in Dacia, Trajan attacks the Parthians in order to expand Roman territory to the east.
Who gathered the Dacians for the first time, BC. Since the Burebista period, which reigned from 82 to 44 BC, Dacians have been threatening Roman rule. Although Julius Caesar made plans to organize an expedition to the region, after Burebista’s death, internal conflicts broke out in Dacian lands, so there was no need for a campaign. After the death of the powerful king, the Dacian tribes, whose four branches are separated, are no longer threatened. In the power struggle between Mark Antony and Augustus, Augustus, who won the civil war because the Dacians supported Antonius, will organize an expedition to the region. B.C. The Roman Army under the command of Marcus Crassus, who was sent to the region in 29 AD, will kill three Dacian kings.
After about a hundred years of peace, MS. In 85-86 BC, he attacked the Dacian king Duras Moesia and killed the Roman ruler Oppius Sabinus here. After the Emperor Domitian established control over Moesia with his legions, AD. In 87 BC, it attacks the Dacian lands. 5 Roman legions under Cornelius Fuscus are ambushed and defeated in the Battle of Tapae. After this victory, the Dacian commander Diurpaneus takes the name Decebalus, meaning brave, and is declared king.
In 88, the Roman military operation continued, this time under the command of Tettius Julianus. The Dacians are defeated in the battle in the area where today’s Bucova village is located. Even though Decebalus offers peace, he will be rejected. Later, due to the confusion in the Roman province of Germania Superior, the legions had to be sent here, and the Romans had to make peace with the Dacians. After the peace treaty, Decebalus becomes a Roman protectorate. For this reason, it receives a large amount of financial assistance, technical support and state-of-the-art weapons, as well as large amounts of financial assistance for the protection of the Roman borders.
The reasons for the war;
In the 1st century AD, Rome had a hard time dealing with the economic weight of military expeditions across Europe. The rich gold resources claimed to be in the region are effective in Rome’s coveting the Dacia region. In addition, despite the Roman victories in previous battles, the Dacians did not fully submit to Roman rule, which was a reason for the new Dacian campaigns. Besides, Dacia had a different place in terms of Rome compared to other rebel tribes. Unlike the Spaniards or Gauls who rebelled against Roman rule at that time, the Dacians owned swords because of the rich iron mines in the region. In the face of a nation with hundreds of thousands of warriors, almost all with swords, the technological advantages of the Roman legions were reduced to the lowest. For this reason, Dacians were one of the most dangerous enemies in this period. Emperor Trajan, who also comes from the military profession, will decide to walk on Dacia, although it is difficult, taking into account the Roman Army structure, which is not suitable for defense war.
First conflicts and war;
Trajan, who was approved by the Senate for his military expedition, is now ready to march on Dacia in 101. During this expedition, Roman war technology has successfully used the latest developments. The main battle took place in 102, as the two legions advancing in front of the army set fire to all the Dacian settlements along the way. Decebalus, who was defeated in the Battle of Tapae, demands a ceasefire from Rome. Under the terms of the treaty, Decebalus receives more Roman aid to prevent the nomadic tribes in the north from invading Roman lands. Resources transferred to protect Roman lands from invasion will once again be spent on the anti-Roman uprising. Before long, Decebalus once again revolted against Roman rule.
Decebalus, who healed the wounds of the first war, began to pillage the Roman lands in the Danube River region, although it seemed to submit to Roman rule for a while. Wanting to intervene immediately, Trajan launches the second expedition to the region in 105. Having fought in unsuitable conditions for the invader, as during the first war, the Roman legions advance with heavy losses against the Dacians. Taking the fortified positions centered on the Dacian capital, Sarmisegetusa, respectively, the Roman Army breaks the initial strong Dacian resistance. Defeat is inevitable when the Dacian nobles, who oppose the Decebalus rule, weaken the resistance by cooperating with Rome. Decebalus, who escaped from the falling capital, commits suicide when he realizes that he will be captured. Despite these developments, the Dacian resistance against the Roman occupation will continue. Thanks to the collaborators of the Dacian nobility, the Dacian treasures will be captured by the Romans.
Results of the War;
The victory of the Dacian Wars was considered a very important success for the Roman Armies. Trajan organized 123 days of entertainment in honor of the victories. When the rich mineral resources of Dacia come under Roman rule, it will give the much needed support to the Roman economy. Intensive mining work was carried out especially in the Roșia Montană mines, whose ruins can still be seen today. After the victory, 100 thousand Dacian men were captured and brought to Rome and the rebelling tribes were intimidated. Legion XIII Gemina and Legion V Macedonica of the Roman legions were permanently undertaken in Dacia, and Roman soldiers, whose mandatory service periods were completed, were encouraged to marry Dacian women in the region, and the conquered Dacian lands were given as a reward.  The southern part of Dacian territory officially joined the imperial lands, and the northern part, although independent, could never be a separate state. Victories in the Dacian Wars increased Trajan’s authority and marked the beginning of a period of relatively peaceful growth.