The mandarin orange also known as the mandarin or mandarine. Mandarin is a type of fruit belonging to the Citrus family, which grows in a temperate climate. Mandarin, which is orange and yellow, has a succulent and juicy structure. Mandarin can be eaten after peeling, which is softer than orange, and can be drunk by squeezing the water. Mandarin has varieties such as tangerina, nova, kinnow, fremond, klausellina, robinson, okitsu, satsuma, ankor, klemantin, fortune, native, lee, fairchild marisol, minneola, orthonic, land, ovari.
Mandarins are smaller and flatter in shape than oranges. It tastes less sour, sweeter and stronger. A ripe mandarin is slightly soft. Their shells are thin and small white mesocarpic, so it is usually easier to peel and cut into pieces. It can be grown in tropical and regions. The name “Mandarin” is derived from the French name of this fruit.
Mandarins contain high amounts of antioxidants. It is beneficial against diseases such as hepatitis, cholecystitis, asthma and bronchitis. It cleans the stomach and intestinal flora. It shows cholesterol-lowering effects. It helps the kidneys to work regularly, shows diuretic properties. It is effective against hypertension. Thanks to its high rate of fibrous structure, it provides a long time to stay full. For this reason, it is used in diets and is helpful in weight loss. Mandarin oil is frequently used in the cosmetics industry. Mandarin oil shows therapeutic properties when applied to oily and acne-prone skin, and is also used to eliminate the cellulite problem.
Since mandarin cultivation is a subject that requires labor, capital and time, ecology, garden planning and variety selection are the subjects that must be understood and examined very well in order to make correct evaluations. The first step in planning a mandarin garden is to identify environmental aspects. Like all citrus fruits, mandarin trees grow best in abundant humus, deep, strained, sandy-loamy, loamy or clay-loamy soils. Mandarin tree should definitely not be grown in heavy soils, since its deeply rooted roots need oxygen. Ground water is generally desired to be 1.5 m below the soil surface; otherwise a good drainage should be made in the soil. For mandarin trees, which are also sensitive to the lime rate of the soil, the optimum soil pH should be 5.5-6. The soil of the land should be analyzed before planting. The soil depth of the place where the mandarin garden will be installed must be at least 1.5-2 m. The main subject to be emphasized in mandarin cultivation is that the soil has an aerated structure; Because mandarin roots require a high amount of oxygen and are very sensitive to airlessness and show choking response.
Mandarin trees have very deep roots, but 90% of their roots are in shallow soils at a depth of 0-90 cm. For this reason, soil cultivation should be done to a depth of 10 cm and the roots of the tree should not be damaged. It will be sufficient and useful to hoe our garden 4 times a year, every 15-20 days in spring and summer. Weed cleaning can be done with such hoeing as well as herbicide drugs.
The most important wish of mandarin trees is to grow in a warm environment. Where this tree is grown, temperatures should not fall below -3, -4 degrees, otherwise mandarin trees may freeze and die. The highest temperatures that it cannot withstand are 45 degrees and above. The development of mandarin trees begins at a temperature of 12, 13 degrees; 25-31 degrees is the temperature at which the growth is the fastest, and at 37-39 degrees the trees stop growing. The optimum temperature for fruit bindings is 21 degrees. Since the harsh winds that are cold and hot affect the mandarin trees in a bad way, windwinds should be established against the prevailing winds where they are located. In addition, the loss of mandarin trees and the quality of their fruits are affected by the humidity of the air. Low humidity air adversely affects tree growth and fruit yield.
Seeds to be used in sapling production must be taken from trees known to be clean from viruses and virus-like diseases. Fruits to be used in seed production should be harvested from the tree, fruits that have fallen to the ground should not be used in seed production; because the fruits are therefore infected with fungal diseases. The supply of seedlings is very important in citrus growing. As in all perennial cultivated crops, if unsuitable land, rootstocks and varieties are selected, it will be very difficult to return. Seedlings must be certified. The root and above-ground organs of seedlings should be healthy. Seeds used in rootstock production should be taken from healthy trees and these fruits should be collected from the tree and not from the ground. Seeds should be moistened and sprayed against underground pests and diseases. If the seeds of other citrus trees, other than the three-leaf rootstock, are sown immediately after extracting from ripe fruit, it gives a high germination rate. However, since sowing is usually done in the spring, seeds taken from fruits ripening at different times can be stored for 8 months at temperatures between 4-7 ºC. Planted seedlings should be planted in spring in short ecology and autumn in other places.
Citrus fruits are the most produced fruit group in the world. Some of the reasons for this are the importance of human nutrition, its unique color and smell, and the raw materials of the cosmetic industry. Citrus, which can also be propagated by seeds and other vegetative means, are mostly grafted on rootstocks due to diseases, climate and soil conditions. As a result of the Tristeza (Göçüren) epidemic in 1920s and frost events in Florida, serious studies on citrus rootstocks were started in the world and rootstocks of different characteristics were revealed. In addition to adapting to the diseases and environmental conditions, rootstocks are used for the purposes of planting the tree in early fruit, extending the life of the tree, increasing the yield, frequent planting, and improving the fruit quality.
The properties to be searched for in an ideal citrus rootstock are: It should be resistant to diseases and pests. It should be compatible with the soil characteristics of the region. It should be resistant to climatic conditions, especially cold temperatures. Fruits used as rootstocks should be multi-core. The rate of polyembryony should be high in rootstock varieties. A good citrus rootstock should show extremely good properties in terms of maternal-pen compatibility when vaccinated. It is the trifoliate and hybrids that we will use most in enduring the cold. But other features should be taken into consideration. The three-leaf rootstock has high sensitivity in calcareous and salty soils.
Vaccination is a form of production without seeds applied in plants. It is the placement and attachment of an eye or a piece of a branch called a graft, onto another plant called rootstock. In citrus, the vaccine is given in two different times. The best result is the vaccination time stagnant vaccine in early autumn. When the spring enters and the sprout begins in the seedlings, it is time to shoot the shoot. In mandarin cultivation, more eye vaccines are applied.
In the cultivation of perennial cultivated plants, it is appropriate to establish a facility according to the analysis covering the next 10-15 years. In the selection of the place where the tangerine garden is to be installed, the highest and lowest temperatures should be considered for the species and variety to be grown. Care should be taken to ensure that the place where the garden will be installed is protected against wind damage. The garden must have internal drainage, and there must be a sufficiently deep and fertile, uniform soil in the garden. Also, sufficient and good quality water should be used for irrigation in the garden. The area chosen for the garden plant should not be exposed to frosts frequently. At least ten years of climate records of the garden should be overlooked. In the pits and lowlands suitable for the formation of frost lake and in the valley floors, the garden facility should be avoided. In low lands with excessive rainfall, drainage possibilities of water should be investigated.