It is the life story of Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of our Republic, written with the residue of the years she lived without her until today and the times her value was felt more and more every day.
Yes, today is the 81st time, it is 5 o’clock. And I feel as if this is the first time I live in that room; My heart is not based on this separation. You have existed so much in our past, in our present, that I know how many sentences I cannot make to describe you. I wrote pages of it; but still so lacking everything. On the other hand, when the subject is you, your heart completes the next sentence so beautifully. Once again today I wrote to give you a big hug. Your naughty body may have become earth; but I know the soul does not leave Turkey.
“For myself, I love you very much”
“On behalf of my country, we love you very much”
After tears that we can’t stop, can’t stop, one more time,
Mustafa was born in Thessaloniki in 1881, as the son of Zübeyde Hanım and Ali Rıza Efendi. This is how Atatürk’s life started in the books we learned in the schools of our childhood. Do you remember everything, right from the image of the house he was born in? However, according to the conditions of the period, there was another side of the coin. Knowing a date and remembering home was not enough.
Mustafa’s date of birth was actually not known exactly in year. He himself did not know. Confusion about the date of birth arose from two calendars used in the Ottoman period. Together with the common points of the Hijri and Rumi Calendar used in this period, Mustafa’s birth year was recorded as 1296; However, it was not specified whether it was Hijri or Rumi. Not surprisingly, since December 26 1925 in the Gregorian calendar used in Turkey, which will begin this year, depending on the month and 1880 ml, or 1881 ml; It prevented us from knowing exactly which one.
The moon issue was also unclear. In many national and international boards and organizations representing Turkey Faik Resit unat (1899-1964), during his research about Ataturk in Thessaloniki neighbors have visited Zübeyde Hanım and had tried to get information on the subject. However, while some of the neighbors said that the birth of little Mustafa coincided with a spring season, according to some it should have been January or February. So even the seasons did not keep up.
The historian Enver Behnan Sapolyo (1900-1972) stated that Zübeyde Hanım said that her son was born on 23 December 1296, and Atatürk’s date of birth was 23 December 1880. The writer and historian Şevket Süreyya Aydemir announced that the date was January 4, 1881. In the last identity card of Atatürk exhibited in Şişli Atatürk Museum today, the date of birth is written as 1881.
Ali Fuat Cebesoy, a classmate, soldier, politician from the War School years, on the other hand, stated that Atatürk was born in 1881, citing the following statement: “Rauf Bey and I are considered your older brother. Because we’re both one year older than you. ” Cebesoy, who used this expression, was born in 1882 …
Let’s come to the story of the acceptance of Atatürk’s birthday on May 19… This acceptance was the result of a gesture of historian Reşit Saffet Atabinen. Atabinen made a gesture on the birth of the nation, and this gesture reflected the importance of May 19 very well. This situation was appreciated by Atatürk as well. In the days following this gesture, a teacher was asking Atatürk about his date of birth for the “Veteran’s Day” they planned. However, since Atatürk did not know the date clearly, he thought that the best day would be 19 May. Tevfik Rüştü Aras, the deputy of the period, also started a research that lasted for days with Atatürk on this subject.
At the end of the study, they could only narrow the date of birth between 10 May and 20 May due to errors in calendars. Thereupon, Atatürk said, “Why not 19 May?” he had found his date of birth. Moreover, he deserved today. From now on, May 19 was Atatürk’s official birthday. It was first notified to the public and to other countries through diplomatic channels.
Now, in the light of these assumptions and Atatürk’s decision, I would like to develop my first sentence with additions. Mustafa was born on May 19, 1881, as the son of Zübeyde Hanım and Ali Rıza Efendi in a 3-storey, 3-room pink house in Thessaloniki, Islahhane Caddesi, in Ahmet Subaşı Neighborhood, in the Ottoman Empire. Of course, many wars and water flowed over those times. The house where Mustafa was born is now in Greece, Thessaloniki, Apostolu Pavlu Caddesi No: 75, Aya Dimitriya Mahallesi
Again, it should be noted that this house at the address mentioned was not the house where Ataturk’s half-sister, Ruhiye Hanim’s grandson, Ferhat Babür, was born. This was the home of Ragıp Bey, Zübeyde Hanım’s second husband. Of course, this is a claim too.
Ali Rıza Bey had immigrated to Thessaloniki by including his family with him. Ali Rıza Bey, who served as a lieutenant in the local troops during the 93 War (1877-1878), worked as a customs officer and a timber trade here. In 1871, while he was working at the Customs Enforcement Agency, he married Zübeyde Hanım, the 14th daughter of a farmer family living in Langaza, west of Thessaloniki. While Ali Rıza Efendi was dreaming of marrying a blonde-haired blue-eyed girl, this girl with black hair and deep blue eyes fell in love. They had settled in a house in Yeni Kapı Mahallesi. In 1872, their first child, whom they called “Fatma”, was born in this house. “Ahmed” came in 1874, and “Omar” in 1875. When Ömer was born, his older sister, Fatma, was caught in the epidemic of asphyxia at the time, and soon passed away at the age of 3.
In 1876, Ali Rıza Efendi had become an officer in the Asakir-i Milliye battalion in Thessaloniki. His appointment was on a desolate, mountainous pass, known as Çayağzı or Priest Bridge on the Greek border, where Greek bandits connected everyone to tribute. They had moved here as a family. Ahmed was 9 years old and Ömer was 8 years old, here again they gave up because of the bird poison.
Ali Rıza Efendi later started trading timber. The trade had taken hold, now their income levels were better. Together with Zübeyde Hanım, they moved into a house in the Ahmet Subaşı neighborhood of Islahane district in Thessaloniki. This house was to be lost with the Treaty of Lausanne, and in 1937, it would be gifted to Atatürk by the Thessaloniki Municipality. It would be converted into a museum after his death.
Mustafa was born in this three-story house in 1881. What a great hope it was after they lost it. Ali Rıza Efendi named his son after his brother, whom he accidentally fell from the cradle when he was a child and caused his death. He had never forgotten him. In 1885, they had a daughter named “Makbule”. In 1889 “Naciye” was born; but he too would succumb to giving the year Mustafa finished his Military Academy …
While Zübeyde Hanım was pregnant with Naciye, Ali Rıza Efendi passed away. Death hovered over the family like a deep breath. Now Zübeyde Hanım was left with her three children. The eldest, Mustafa, was not even 8 years old. Zübeyde Hanım took the children and went to her brother Hüseyin Bey’s farm in Langaza. A new life awaited Mustafa, who was growing up after his father’s house …
Mustafa and his brother Makbule grew up playing games in their uncle’s farm in the cottage. The two brothers’ favorite game was chasing crows. The crows were chasing them so that they would not eat the crops. In fact, his uncle was giving this to Mustafa as a job. While trying to adapt to village life, he was trying to help his uncle in many duties. But with Makbule, they were their favorite field watchman. Because they were chasing the crows at this time. It was among the most delightful memories of their childhood. It has always been said that his childhood was in poverty. However, years later, in an interview with a biographer named Armstrong, the following statement about his father’s house was on the record.
Zübeyde Hanım did not want to be a burden to her brother. Moreover, the burden of being a widow was not that light. For this, he decided to make his second marriage and married Ragıp Bey, the Thessaloniki Customs Director. Ragıp Bey also had four children from his first marriage. Mustafa actually later told Ali Fuat Cebesoy, “He always treated me very respectfully, treated like a great man. He is a kind and gentle person. ” would tell Ragıp Bey. But now he saw this marriage as a disrespect for his father’s memory. He was very angry. This anger was living in himself while he was attending school in Thessaloniki. After the Balkan War (1913), Zübeyde Hanım left Thessaloniki, which was no longer an Ottoman land, and came to Istanbul with Makbule. He settled in a house here in Beşiktaş Akaretler
Now it was time to go to school, when Mustafa’s parents had a conflict. This moment, which later will be remembered as one of the first memories that falls on Mustafa’s mind, was the story of a struggle. Her mother, Zübeyde Hanım, wanted Hafız Mehmet Efendi to go to the Neighborhood School. His father, Ali Rıza Efendi, was in favor of going to the secular Mekrebi Şemsi İbtidai (Şemsi Efendi School), which was teaching with new methods that were newly opened at that time.
Realizing that they were gradually at an impasse in this debate, Ali Rıza Efendi found an ingenious solution. Mustafa started the Neighborhood School with a usual ceremony, just as his mother wanted. Thus, Zübeyde Hanım’s heart was won. Mustafa left the Mahalle School a few days later and enrolled in the Şemsi Efendi School. Every time Mustafa recalls this memory with a smile, he would always be grateful to his father for choosing a school.
When his father died in 1888, when he went to his uncle’s farm, Mustafa’s education was also interrupted. A solution had to be found for this. His mother was very worried about this. For this, he decided to send his son to Thessaloniki, to his aunt’s house and continue the school. So Mustafa returned to school.
He was going to school and he was successful. Their neighbor Major Kadri Bey was very interested. Especially his son Ahmet, whom he saw in his school uniform, was going to the Military High School, and this situation could not go beyond Mustafa’s interest. Now his mind was enthusiastic about wearing a dress like this. His eyes were on the uniforms of the cadets and the officers he saw on the streets. He couldn’t help thinking how much he wanted to do this job. However, he had to go to the Military Junior High School for this, and it was difficult for his mother to agree to this. He told his mother, who came to Thessaloniki at that time, about his desire to go to the Military Junior High School, who could not stand it. Military service was a very scary profession for Zübeyde Hanım. He was fiercely in front of his son. That’s why Mustafa sneaked into the admission exam. He had passed the exam. “Thus, an order was made (was formed) against the mother.” He would summarize this situation in his interview with Ahmet Emin in 1922.
Being in high school was very good for Mustafa. He liked Mathematics lesson the most. Before long, he knew about mathematics at least as much as the instructor of the lesson, maybe more than him. Apart from the lessons, he liked to write essays the most.
The math teacher was Captain Mustafa Sabri Bey from Skopje. In the interview he gave to Ahmet Emin that his teacher gave him the name Kemal again, he said: “One day, he said to me:‘ My son, your name is Mustafa, and me… It will not be like this. There should be a difference; Let your name be Mustafa Kemal from now on… “Since then, your name has remained Mustafa Kemal.” His teacher chose this name because it meant perfection, maturity.
Mustafa Ogretmen had a very strong temper. For him, it didn’t matter if you were first or second in the class. When he graduated from the Military High School, Mustafa had both a love of mathematics that overflowed his heart and a new name.
Following the Junior High School, Mustafa was considering entering the Kuleli Military High School. However, he decided to go to the Manastir Military High School in 1896, following the advice of the Thessaloniki Officer Hasan Bey, who was his brother. Mathematics, which he advanced in junior high, came here quite easily. For this he was even more fond of Mathematics. However, his French was rather weak. His teacher was not very interested in him, he usually gave warnings. Honestly, these warnings were going to the power of Mustafa; but it was not for him to feel sorry and accept or give up. He started looking for remedies. He improved his French by going to the special class of the Frerler School secretly for 2-3 months. The thought of freedom of the French teacher, Captain Nakiyüddin Bey (Yücekök), would affect Mustafa Kemal’s mindset a lot.
Mehmet Tevfik Bey (Bilge), a history teacher at İdadi, was also shining Mustafa Kemal’s interest in history. His desire to become a soldier increased as he learned history. So much so that in 1897 he wanted to voluntarily participate in the Ottoman-Greek War. However, he could not go to the front both because he was only 16 years old and because he was still a student in İdadi. Mustafa graduated from İdadi in second place in 1899.
On March 13, 1899, he entered the Mekteb-i Harbiye-i Şahane in Istanbul. He graduated 27th in the first grade and 11th in the second grade. In 1902, he completed the third class among 549 people with the rank of Mülazım (Lieutenant), eighth in the infantry class (1317 – P.8). Immediately afterwards, he continued to Erkan-ı Harbiye Mektebi, now known as the Military Academy. He graduated from here on January 11, 1905 with the rank of Staff Captain.
Mustafa’s acquaintance with literature was when Ömer Naci, who was expelled from Bursa High School, came to his classes. Ömer Naci was a poet even then. He asked for a book to read from Mustafa. When he looked at all his books, his friend didn’t like any of them, and that went to Mustafa’s strength. So much so that Mustafa just realized that there is such a thing as poetry, literature. Until now, he had been so immersed in Mathematics books, that he struggled to learn French that he had not even considered a field called Literature. So now was the time to discover.
The poem drew the attention of Mustafa; but a teacher who came to İdadi as a teacher of Kitabet (Fine Writing) said, “This kind of occupation will keep you away from being a soldier.” he banned. His enthusiasm to write beautifully remained in a corner of his heart.
In İdadi, all students were competing with each other to be the first. When he finally completed İdadi, he went to Harbiye. His passion for mathematics still continued. At the beginning of the first year, poplar winds were blowing. He had neglected his lessons. He couldn’t even realize how the year had passed, so he recovered quickly. In the second year, he was more curious about his military lessons. On the other hand, he still had the desire to write poetry; but he did not forget the banned warning of his teacher at İdadi. His desire to say and write nice words made him have an endless love for literature in his heart. During the recess, they met with their friends and practiced beautiful writing exercises for an hour in their hands, saying, “So many minutes you, so many minutes I will sing.” He had no intention of extinguishing the literary light that fell in his heart.
According to his brother Makbule and his childhood friend and later his aide, Salih Bozok, when he was 12, he fell in love with Major Rüknettin’s 8-year-old daughter Müjgan for the first time. Children’s heart fluttered for Müjgan. The name of his second love was Hatice. Hatice’s mother prevented them from meeting …
Stepping into youth again, the boy felt love in his heart. She fell in love with the 12-year-old daughter of Thessaloniki Military Commander Şevki Pasha while she was teaching Mathematics. While leaving his first youth behind, it was also said that he fell in love with Eleni Kriyas, the daughter of the Greek merchant Eftim Karinte while he was in Thessaloniki. It was very valuable for Mustafa to feel the presence of his heart. There were days when he would live somewhere between his profession and his heart.
Mathematics, Literature, French… School education gave him many interests. When the Harbiye years began, then his ideas of politics also aroused his interest. He had not yet acquired great ideas to penetrate; but it was not far away. They were reading Namık Kemal’s books. That was possible only after he went to bed. It was a very tight period. They tried to read such works and then shared their ideas. The feeling that there was something lacking somewhere stuck to their throats. Still, the incident did not immediately come to mind. They should have been cooked.
In an interview he gave to Ahmed Emin in 1922, he said the following about this issue: “We passed to the Military War classes. I was studying very well in the usual classes. As a result of these, new ideas emerged in me and some friends. We started to discover that there are bad things in the administration and politics of the country. ” This discovery would open new doors, especially in the life of Mustafa Kemal.
Maybe a few windows were needed to open the doors. So they did. Since there was some time to open new doors, then they should share what they discovered with the other students at the school. They could start by opening a window for them to see, too. Didn’t it all start with a light, after all? They hit the road with enthusiasm and started publishing newspapers with handwriting. Mustafa wrote the articles of the newspaper, which were founded by those few explorers from the class. This newspaper did not go unnoticed by the Mekatip Inspector (Schools) İsmail Pasha. Especially he was getting followed. School Principal Rıza Paşa said, “Either he is not aware of it, or he tolerates it.” He said. Rıza Pasha also denied the situation in order to protect his position.
Mustafa Kemal and his friends were now more careful about the newspaper. One day, they left a guard at the door to write one of the newspaper articles in one of the classrooms, when Rıza Paşa breathlessly stormed the classroom with the news of one of the birds. The writings were clearly on the table; they were caught off guard. Yet he ignored it. He just said that he forbade them to do anything other than their classes. He did not implement any other criminal action. He did not want to express the flaws sought in himself.
Mustafa and his friends continued these works until the Military Harbiye classes were over. When he graduated as a captain, he hoped to deal with these jobs more comfortably during the time they would spend in Istanbul. They took an apartment in an apartment in the name of a friend. Occasionally they would gather here. Every step they took was known; Although the school ended, their follow-up was not over. However, they were so busy with their work that they could not think that a detective would get in the way. An old friend named Fethi Bey came across them. He touched his feelings with his poor condition and the appearance of needy and asked them for a place to sleep. Mustafa and his friends decided to put him in this apartment where they worked.
Fethi Bey told Mustafa a place to meet two days later. When Mustafa got there, there was an aide from the palace next to Fethi Bey. One day later they were all arrested. It was understood that Fethi Bey was İsmail Pasha’s detective. Mustafa was imprisoned alone for a while. He was then taken to the palace for questioning. There was Ismail Pasha, the Chief Secretary and a bearded man there. He understood during the interrogation that they were found guilty of jobs such as publishing newspapers, establishing an organization, and working in the apartment. Other friends, whose testimony was already taken, confessed. They were released after a few months of detention.
A few days later, they called the students who had finished Erkan-ı Harbiye. It was decided to go to Edirne and Thessaloniki, that is, the 2nd and 3rd Armies of that time with an equal distribution. Who would go where would be determined with the Qur’an. However, if the candidates agreed among themselves, it was not necessary. Mustafa immediately gathered his friends with a sign. He had an effective personality. Who will go where after a little talk, they broke up among themselves. They had exiled Mustafa to Syria. He was going to do an internship in a Cavalry Corps in Damascus. Mustafa Kemal, who graduated from the War Academy with the rank of Chief of Staff in 1905, had been burning for these days since his 16th. Between 1905-1907, he will be in charge of the 5th Army in Damascus, under Lütfi Müfit Bey (Özdeş); It would fit a lot in these two years.
In his first internship, Mustafa Kemal, who was in the 30th Cavalry Regiment of the 5th Army, was dealing with the uprisings in various regions of Syria as a low-ranking intern Staff Officer. This working environment gave him experience on guerrilla warfare, which is known as small war. After spending 4 months here, he returned to Damascus.
In October 1906, Major Lütfi Bey, Lütfi Müfit Bey (Özdeş), Dr. Mahmut Bey established a society called “Homeland and Freedom” with the military doctor Mustafa Cantekin, who went to Thessaloniki without permission from the army. His aim was to open a branch of this society there as well. He came ashore with the help of Thessaloniki Central Deputy Commander Captain Cemil Bey (Uybad). He soon learned that he was being sought. Colonel Hasan Bey, who was his brother, returned to Jaffa. The commander of this place suggested Ahmet Bey to inform Mustafa that he was sent to Birüssebi on the Egyptian border. Taking this proposal into consideration, Ahmet Bey appointed Mustafa Kemal to Birüssebi. However, after a while, he was sent back to Damascus for artillery internship. Mustafa Kemal reached the title of Senior Captain (Colonel) on June 20, 1907. On October 13, he was appointed to the 3rd Army as the Founder.
After opening the Thessaloniki branch of the Vatan ve Hürriyet Cemiyeti, he had to leave from there. Now, when he came back to Thessaloniki, he learned that the branch of the society he led was included in the Committee of Union and Progress. Thereupon, in February 1908, he became a member of the Committee of Union and Progress with 322 members. On June 22, 1908, Mustafa Kemal was now appointed as the Railways Inspector of the Rumelia Eastern Region.
He was progressing step by step in his work. He had a lot of dreams. Did he feel that what he wanted to reach would one day move him and his country to a completely different place, and he took the first steps to establish a new country?
It was a time when everything was transforming very quickly. He had just spent five months in his newly appointed post that, on 23 July 1908, II. Following the proclamation of the Constitutional Monarchy, he was sent to Tripoli, a part of today’s Libya, by the Committee of Union and Progress towards the end of December before the end of the year. Mustafa Kemal was aimed to examine the social, political and security problems here.
Mustafa Kemal was here trying to explain and spread the ideas of the 1908 Revolution to Libyans. While trying to win people from different sections of the population into the Young Turk Policy, he was also concerned with the issue of the security of the people of the region. He was in control of the matter. He was aware that he had the ability to observe, perseverance and self-confidence to handle many things at once. While here, he also participated in a war exercise outside the city. He led the Benghazi Garrison, teaching modern techniques to the soldiers. In addition, during this exercise, they took Sheikh Mansur, who was inclined to revolt, under control by wrapping his house. He aimed to set an example for other anti-system people in the region. As a result of his observations during the exercise, he had already begun to plan a reserve army to protect all people from the city, the countryside. In the early years of his profession, he was trying to take his steps firmly and fully. After completing his duty in Tripoli, Mustafa Kemal started his new duty on January 13, 1909 as the Chief of Staff of the Salonika Redif Party affiliated to the 3rd Army. The March 31st Uprising was at the door. Everything started on April 13, 1909, with the revolt of the 2nd and 4th Hunters Battalions, which were properly positioned in Taşkışla, which was attached to the 3rd Army against the Constitutional Monarchy. Later, other troops joined in and raised this uprising. This group, II. After the Constitutional Monarchy was declared, he was against the administration in Istanbul. Although the uprising took place on April 13, its name would go down in history as the March 31 Uprising because it started on March 31, 1325 according to the Rumi Calendar. Mustafa Kemal was the Chief of Staff of the first level units of the Movement Army, which will enter Istanbul on April 19, under the command of Mirliva Mahmut Şevket Pasha, departing from Thessaloniki and Edirne to suppress this 13-day uprising.
Mustafa Kemal was fascinating with his successful stance against this great rebellion. He was also very proud of his work. His duties continued repeatedly. Mustafa Kemal, who was appointed as the 3rd Army Staff immediately afterwards, shined in many positions such as the 3rd Army Officer Instruction Command, 5th Corps Staff, 38th Infantry Regiment Command.
Mustafa Kemal, who went to France in 1910, returned to the General Staff Headquarters in Istanbul on September 27, 1911.
According to Stuart Kline in his book “Turkish Aviation Chronology”, Mustafa Kemal went to France in 1910 to participate in the Picardie Maneuvers, where test flights of newly produced aircraft were made. Mustafa Kemal also wanted to join one of these flights; but Ali Rıza Pasha prevented this. Here, the plane on that test flight that Mustafa Kemal did not participate in crashed on the ground. Based on this event in the future, it would be said that Atatürk was afraid of getting on the plane. However, as stated in Stuart Kline’s book, after this incident, Mustafa Kemal had participated in trial flights 3 times.
Mustafa Kemal during the war years;
On September 19, 1911, the Tripoli War started when the Italians attacked Tripoli. Mustafa Kemal, who rose to the title of Major on November 27, 1911, also acted with other Unionist officers such as Major Enver Bey, Major Fuat (Bulca), Major Fethi (Okyar), Major Nuri (Conker) on December 18. With his group, they crossed into Benghazi in Egypt, via Cairo and Alexandria. During this journey, he fell ill shortly after he set off from Alexandria. Nevertheless, he triumphed on December 22, near Tobruk.
He was wounded in the attack on January 16-17, 1912 in Derne. He was treated in the hospital for a month. After he recovered, he became the name brought to the Derne Command on March 6. In September, peace talks had begun. Despite this, however, clashes continued. This contradiction came to an end when Montenegro declared war against the Ottomans on 8 November. With the start of the Balkan Wars, peace was settled. After the war that ended on October 18, 1912, Mustafa Kemal returned to Istanbul with other officers.
On October 8, 1912, the Balkan War broke out. Mustafa Kemal, who was in charge as the Commander of the Association in Tripoli, wanted to take part in these wars with Major Nuri Bey. Mustafa left Tripoli on October 24 with the permission of Enver Bey, the Ottoman War Ministry of the time.
On November 24, Mustafa Kemal was appointed as the Head of Operations Department of the Bahr-i Sefit Strait (Mediterranean Strait) Kuvayi Crew, whose headquarters is in Bolayır. The Ottoman army was defeated here by the Bulgarian 4th Army under the command of General Stiljan Georgiev Kovachev. After the end of the First Balkan War on May 30, the Second Balkan War started on June 16, 1913. All states were disturbed by the borders formed after the First Balkan War. They thought that land allocation was unfair, and that Bulgaria got more land than it deserved. The Ottoman State also wanted to take back the lands it lost. Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, Montenegro and Ottoman II. When it fell into the Balkan War, Romania later got involved in the war to profit from this environment.
Since Bulgaria was the only target in the war, it could not withstand the attack of all states and suffered a heavy defeat. Bulgaria withdrew its troops from many places to retreat to the defense. The Ottoman Army, which implemented its strategy well, entered Edirne on July 21. Thus, Edirne, Kırklareli and Dimetoka were taken back… Mustafa Kemal entered Dimetoka and Edirne with the troops under his command.
Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the Sofia Military Attache on 27 October 1913. Here he would work under his close friend Sofia Ambassador (Elçi) Fethi Bey (Okyar). In addition, he was also carrying out the Belgrade and Cetine Military Attaché as an additional task. While these duties were continuing, he rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel (District Governor) on March 1, 1914.
World War I was now on the horizon,
World War I years
The global war that started on July 28, 1914 was Europe-centered and II. “World War” was to be known as the “Great War” until World War II. We were allied with Germany in this war. Mustafa Kemal was working for the Ottoman Army during the First World War. He was appointed Colonel in Çanakkale Front and General of Lightning Armies in Sinai and Palestine Front. According to Mustafa Kemal’s Military Attaché, it would end in January 1915. The war had also started during this mission. The Ottoman Empire entered the war that started on July 28, on October 29. On 20 January 1915, Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the 19th Party Command to be established in Tekfurdağ under the command of the 3rd Corps. The party was taken into precaution in Eceabat Region on March 23, 1915, by the order of the Fortified Position Command. On April 25, 1915, the Dardanelles War started with the attack of the Entente States on the Gallipoli Peninsula. Mustafa Kemal was fighting here under the command of 3rd Corps Commander Mehmet Esat Pasha with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel (District Governor). He stopped the ANZAC soldiers who landed in Ariburnu before they advanced into the peninsula in Conkbayiri. This was an undeniable success and the 5th Army Commander German General and Ottoman Marshal won the admiration of Otto Liman von Sanders, who won the rank of Musir in this war. He was promoted to Miralay on 1 June. In August, the British made their second landing in the Gulf of Suvla. On the evening of August 8, von Sanders commanded the troops in the Anafartalar region. The Anafartalar Victory was won on August 9-10. Then Kireçtepe on August 17 and II on August 21. The Anafartalar Victory has arrived. Now it was time for Mustafa Kemal’s success to come to the fore. Istanbul press, especially Ruşen Eşref Bey (Ünaydın) introduced Mustafa Kemal to the public as the “Hero of the Anafartalar”. Following this success, Mustafa Kemal was appointed to the 16th Corps Command, which was transferred from Gallipoli to Edirne on January 14, 1916. He was interested in ensuring the integrity and training of the 16th Corps during the 2-month period he will spend here. Meanwhile, according to the point reached in the war, Russian troops repelled the Ottoman 3rd Army on the Eastern Front and occupied Erzurum on 16 February and Bitlis, Van, Hakkari and Muş on 3 March. Thereupon, Colonel Mustafa Kemal was sent to Diyarbakır with the 16th Corps under his command to support the 3rd Army on 15 March. Now was the time to talk wit. In fact, this was a heavy responsibility for his rank. However, Mustafa Kemal, who was promoted to Brigadier General (Mirliva) while in Diyarbakır on April 1, was given the title of “Pasha” with his strategic approach. It wouldn’t be that much. Mustafa Kemal applied a tactic and ordered to withdraw. When the enemy thought that he had given up, he first rescued Muş from the Russians with an unexpected attack. Thus, he provided a strategic superiority to the Ottoman Empire. He was awarded the “Golden Sword Medal” for this success in the Caucasian Front. Before the end of August, Muş and Bitlis were completely liberated from Russian occupation. The war was going on with all its cold face. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was appointed as the Deputy Commander of the 2nd Army on March 7, 1917, whose headquarters was in Diyarbakır. Although he was asked to be brought to the Hicaz Kuvve-i Seferiyesi Command later on, he did not accept this. On July 5, he was appointed to the 7th Army Command under the command of the Lightning Armies. Meanwhile, other things were also happening in Istanbul. Yakub Cemil, one of the Unionist fedayeen, was convinced that the war would be lost and decided to do a coup d’etat. According to him, now the only way of salvation was to raid the Bab-ı Ali and overthrow the government; The Deputy Commander-in-Chief and War Minister had to be changed. Mustafa Kemal did not know about this; but he was considering Mustafa Kemal for the post of Deputy Commander-in-Chief and War Minister. When one of his friends, whom he attempted to do this job, informed Enver Pasha about the conspiracy, Yakub Cemil was shot as a punishment. Much later, Mustafa Kemal Pasha would say the following about this incident in his memoirs to Falih Rıfkı Atay: (whobiography) “To Ali Fuad (Cebesoy) who commanded one of my divisions at that time: Yakup Cemil was hanged. The reason is that he said there is no salvation unless I was the Deputy Commander-in-Chief and the Minister of War. If he had done what he said, I would punish Yakub Cemil as the first thing I did when I went to Istanbul. If I am a man to be put to power by him and others like him, I am not a man! ” Mustafa Kemal went to Germany under the administration of Crown Prince Vahdettin Efendi between December 15, 1917 and January 5, 1918. Here, General Headquarters, Elsass Region and Kayzer II. He visited Wilhelmm. He had seen some malfunctions in the German Garp Front. After his observations, he felt even more justified in his ideas. Unfortunately, Mustafa Kemal returned to Istanbul from this trip ill. After being treated for two months, he went to Vienna in June 1918. Here he spent a month in the sanatorium.
For a while, Karlovy, as it is known today, remained in Karlsbat as it was then called. Meanwhile, the situations that Mustafa Kemal Pasha clearly reported in the past started to be experienced one by one on the Sinai Front. After the death of Sultan Mehmed Reşad and Vahdettin ascended to the throne, he returned to Istanbul on August 2. He was on the Palestinian Front on 15 August as 7th Army Commander. It was nearing the end now. The Lightning Armies Group did not have the strength to fight. On September 20, 1918, he sent a telegram to Naci Bey (Eldeniz), Vahdettin’s archive, and reported the situation. He suggested that a ceasefire be requested. He also stated that he wanted to work as the Deputy Commander-in-Chief and War Minister in the new government. On October 6, he resigned from the 7th Army Command. And Mustafa Kemal Pasha was again right. On September 19, British forces under Edmund Allenby took the general offensive. The Lightning Armies group, consisting of three armies, suffered a heavy defeat in the face of this attack. Damascus on 1 October and Aleppo fell on 25 October. Fortunately, Mustafa Kemal Pasha stopped the British in Aleppo and managed to establish a defense line. The Mondros Armistice was signed on October 30, 1918 and came into effect at noon the next day. Article 19 of the Armistice said that Otto Liman von Sanders, Commander of the Lightning Armies Group, would be dismissed and Mustafa Kemal Pasha would be replaced. This was going to be a fairly short task. Because the Lightning Armies and the 7th Army were lifted on November 7. On November 10, 1918, Mustafa Kemal Pasha left the command of the Yıldırım Brigades to Nihat Pasha, the Commander of the 2nd Army, and moved from Adana to Istanbul. On November 13, he reached Haydarpaşa Train Station in Istanbul. Here, while passing from Haydarpaşa to Istanbul, he saw the enemy’s warships anchored in the Bosphorus. That magic sentence spilled from his lips: “They go as they come!” Yes, the Ottoman Empire was defeated. Now, Mustafa Kemal had more plans for his country. The enemy would really go as it came, innovation would come to the country.
Mustafa Kemal goes to Samsun;
Following the Mondros Armistice, resistance movements organized in Anatolia under the name of National Forces were initiated. It was the first defense establishment of the War of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Ulukışla before he left his last place of duty Adana and started the first organization. On February 2, 1919, Cemal Pasha from Mersin was sent to Anatolia as an inspector. He was in charge of organizing the Ottoman armies in the east according to the conditions of the armistice. In November 1918, British High Commissioner Admiral Calthorpe and French High Commissioner Admiral Amet gave notes to the Ottoman Government. They said that the Turks were armed and killed Christians in the east and demanded that a measure be taken. At this point, Sultan Vahdettin assigned Mustafa Kemal Pasha to solve the problem by equipping him with extraordinary powers in accordance with the notes he received from the occupation forces. He will give Mustafa Kemal the day he was born, the big day that started the War of Independence, it was time to go to Samsun. Mustafa Kemal had one last meeting with Vahdettin before moving to Samsun. He would also tell Falih Rıfkı Atay about that last meeting. Vahdettin said to Mustafa Kemal: “Pasha Pasha, you have served the state a lot until now, all of these are now included in this book, it is in history. Forget them, the service you will do now may be more important than all. Pasha Pasha, you can save the state!” Although there were confident words, Mustafa Kemal could not be sure of Vahdettin’s sincerity. Before long, he understood that he was complying with the policies of the Allied Forces. Vahdettin only wanted the Turks who opposed this policy to be appeased; that’s all! And then came the big day. Mustafa Kemal Pasha got on the Bandırma Ferry on May 19, 1919, Staff Colonel Refet Bey (Bele), Staff Major Hüsrev Bey (Gerede), Staff Colonel Kazım Bey (Dirik), Staff Colonel ‘Ayıcı’ Mehmet Arif Bey, Dr. Colonel İbrahim Bey (Talî Öngören), Dr. He went to Samsun with Major Refik Bey (Saydam), Major Kemal Bey (Doğan), Captain Cevat Abbas Bey (Gürer) and Captain Ali Şevket Bey (Öndersev). At that moment, many steps were taken to reach many things. It would go down in history today as the de facto beginning of the Turkish War of Independence.
He stayed at Mantıka Palace in Samsun for a week. In this process, he investigated the cause of the conflicts that took place in the region. Contrary to the task assigned by Vahdettin, he personally supported the establishment of local Forces Milliye organizations against the invaders. One week later, he went to Havza, stayed here for 17 days and left and moved to Amasya.
Mustafa Kemal and his friends with whom he set out had completed their work in Havza and moved to Amasya on June 12, 1919. They were preparing a circular here. After they were prepared, they sent the Commander of the 15th Corps in Erzurum to Kazım Karabekir and received his approval. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, along with Kazım Karabekir Pasha, Ali Fuad Pasha (Cebesoy), Refet Bey (Bele), Rauf Bey (Orbay), published the Amasya Circular on June 22. In the Circular, it was stated that the integrity of the country and the independence of the nation were in danger, and the Government of Istanbul made the nation seem as if it were not there because it could not bear the responsibility it took. It was declared that “the nation’s determination and decision will save the nation’s independence.” They also announced that they would hold a congress in Sivas, which they thought was safe in all respects in Anatolia. In order to participate in this congress, it was requested that 3 representatives from each province be selected and sent and their travels be confidential. For the eastern provinces, a congress would be held in Erzurum, and Erzurum Congress members would come to Sivas. When the circular was sent to all civil and military commanders via telegram, it drew the reaction of the occupation forces in Istanbul. The British increased the pressure on the state for Mustafa Kemal’s return to Istanbul. It was impossible to resist the pressures any longer. The Minister of the Interior of the period Ali Kemal Bey, with a circular, stated that Mustafa Kemal was actually a very good soldier; however, he reported that he was dismissed under pressure from the British.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha held the Erzurum Congress with the eastern provinces gathered by Kazım Karabekir Pasha between 23 July and 7 August. At the insistence of the members of the congress, he resigned from the Ottoman Army and was elected the President of the Congress. Thus, his dismissal did not matter. In this congress, it was decided that the homeland is an indivisible whole within the national borders, if the Istanbul government fails to protect the homeland and ensure independence, a provisional government will be established, Christian minorities cannot be given privileges that will disrupt the political dominance and social balance, and that mandate and protection cannot be accepted!
The Sivas Congress also gathered between 4 and 11 September, despite all the reactions. In order to implement the decisions taken in a systematic manner, a Representation Committee was formed, whose chairman Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected. In this congress, all national societies united under the name of Anadolu and Rumelia Defense of Rights Association. It was on the agenda of the congress that the lands of the country that were not occupied on the day the Armistice of Mondros were signed were a whole and could not be separated from each other. It was emphasized that it was essential to recognize the National Forces as the only force and to make the national will sovereign. The Ottoman Parliament had to convene immediately to represent the national will. It was also required to put government decisions under the control of the parliament. Here, a note from General Harbord’s meeting with Mustafa Kemal Pasha should also be conveyed! During World War I, General Harbord, the Chief of Staff of the Genereal Pershing, and his friends came to Sivas in September 1919 and met with Mustafa Kemal. This meeting, of course, bore the traces of the war. After a very long speech, he said. “When I was appointed to this task, I read Turkish History. I saw that your nation had prepared great armies and raised great commanders. A nation that does this must have a civilization. I appreciate it. But let’s look at our current situation. You were four allies, primarily Germany. Four years. You have fought, you have been defeated as a result. How can you think of doing something that you could not do together, alone in this situation? “Thank you to the general. He has read our history; he appreciates and acknowledges that our nation has raised great armies and great commanders, and that for this our nation must have a civilization. on the other hand, as our fathers son, we prefer to die without hitting. ” As these words poured from his lips, Mustafa Kemal was also showing the form of gradual and miserable death by squeezing his palm, as if pointing to a bird that fell into a paw with his hands. Now this meant that the conversation was over. There wasn’t much to say anyway. Getting up quietly, Harbord and his friends said, “We would have done that, too!” they couldn’t help saying. They broke up after a soft handshake.
And the Grand National Assembly of Turkey opened;
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and those who worked hard with him succeeded. Now was the time to experience the excitement of forming the assembly. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was greeted with enthusiasm in Ankara on December 27, 1919. On the other hand, there was the last stage in the process of sharing the Ottoman lands. Precisely during this period, the foreign policy problem, which was expressed as the “American Mandate”, was discussed and rejected. It was inevitable that the parliament would open after this situation. Since Mustafa Kemal thought that an assembly was in danger in Istanbul under the occupation, Mustafa Kemal wanted to convene in Anatolia, not in Istanbul. He expressed this opinion in the meetings held by the Representation Committee; however, the idea of Istanbul was outweighing. In the election held during the Ali Rıza Pasha Government to determine the members of the Parliament, the members of the Anatolian and Rumelia Defense of Rights Association won the election. The idea of the Representation Committee was that the elected members of parliament form a group in the Assembly-i Mebusan. They also called it Müdafaa-i Hukuk. However, such a group could not be established. However, the Representation Committee had ensured that the National Pact they had prepared was accepted in the Parliament. Mustafa Kemal Pasha wanted to be elected as the president of the Parliament and to have their movement in Anatolia legally recognized. However, the Ottoman Parliament was suppressed by the British occupation forces on March 18, 1920, and the deputies of the Representation Committee were arrested and exiled. After this arrest, the Meclis-i Mebusan was also closed. Upon this situation, Mustafa Kemal immediately called the Representative Committee to convene the representative assembly in Ankara. With a declaration published on April 21, 1920, he announced that the parliament would open on April 23, 1920. And finally, on Friday, April 23, 1920, after the Friday Prayer in the Hacı Bayram Mosque, the assembly was opened with prayers. Anatolian and Rumelia Defense of Rights and Council The parliament, which was established with 324 deputies consisting of members of the parliament, was opened with 115 deputies as a result of difficulties. At the meeting held on the same day, the basis of its existence was “Sovereignty, unconditionally the nation!” the principle of the parliament opened with the name “Grand National Assembly of Turkey” was decided to be. Henceforth Ataturk in writing for the first time on 8 February 1921 the Council of Ministers Decree with this form of speech used in each “Grand National Assembly of Turkey” would win permanence name. According to the traditions of the Parliament, Şerif Bey, the oldest member of the Sinop Deputy, took the Chair of the Presidency and said with pride in his opening speech after so much time spent.
“As the oldest member of this Supreme Council and with the help of God, I open the Grand National Assembly by directly assuming the responsibility of our nation’s internal and external destiny and declaring to the whole world that it has started to govern itself.” Following this meaningful opening, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected as the Speaker of the Assembly in the second meeting held on April 24. He continued his duty until the President was elected on October 29, 1923.
Freedom and independence are my character;
Finally, the parliament was opened and a year had passed. The Hakimiyet-i Milliye reporter made an interview with Mustafa Kemal on April 22, 1921 and asked him about his special feel for the opening day of the parliament on the first anniversary. Mustafa Kemal thought for a few minutes to collect his head. From the seat he was buried in, his eyes watched the smoke from his cigarette toward the window. Part of his long answer was: “… Both the nation and should they call officially to the government in Istanbul said: ” Mustafa recognize Kemal Mustafa Kemal safety and do not rely on. Violence demonstrated against the Entente states to Turkey, because of her. ” They are such söylüyorlar.v to They claimed that if I was eliminated, the nation and the country would see all kinds of friendship and goodness from outside, and they were trying to mislead the afflicted by this way. On Friday, April 23, at about two o’clock in the afternoon, when I saw that the members of the parliament, who had occupied my whole existence for days and nights, filled this hall of revolution and confidence (with a safe gaze), it was our initiative. I understood (understood) once again the complete coherence (conformity) of the nation to the âmaline (aspirations). And since I will work with so many friends who fully represent the ideas and aspirations of the common nation in ideas and aspirations, I felt a great happiness. “(Whobiographycom)
And in the next question, Mustafa Kemal was adding that sentence that was engraved in our minds as if to summarize his life:
“Liberty and independence are my character!”
Life of Kemal Atatürk Continues;
National Struggle Period;
The parliament was established and a brand new page was opened. However, this time, Kuvayı Milliye organizations, so influential in the formation of the parliament, started to pose a problem. In fact, the bloodiest conflicts of the War of Independence were fought against the Forces Milliye groups who refused to join the regular army. According to British Prime Minister Lloyd George, Greece should have grown and united its interests with Britain. Greece should keep its straits open to Europe and act in line with Britain’s interests in the Mediterranean. It had to; This is what the British wanted. It was understood that the Treaty of Sèvres, signed in Paris on August 10, 1920, after World War I, could not be implemented without the use of force. The Entente States did not have such a power. They sent Greeks to Anatolia not only to take Turkish cities and include them in their own geography, but also to pursue their own interests. On the one hand, the Allied Forces union also crashed. While Italy was clearly uncomfortable with the settlement of the Greeks in Anatolia, France saw the land gains in Syria sufficient. The Greeks were alone now; it had to subdue the Turks with its own armies. On the other hand, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, if you would have saved Turkey beat Greek. The Greek Army took action from Bursa to Eskişehir and from Uşak to Afyon on January 6, 1921. They had advanced up to İnönü positions on January 9, when they realized that they could not go forward against the Turkish Army. They retreated on the morning of January 11th. The First Battle of İnönü was very valuable as it was the first victory of the regular army. As the public’s confidence in the newly established army increased, the transition from the National Forces to the army was accelerated. On the other hand, this success attracted the attention of the whole world. On January 26, the Entente States asked the Ottoman State to send a delegation to London and the Ankara Government to be present at this meeting. A conference was held in London between February 21 and March 11 to discuss a change in the Treaty of Sevres, especially for the benefit of the Turks. Unfortunately, there was no result for the benefit of the Turks and the struggle continued.
Greece, too, had begun preparations for a new attack on Anatolia before the London Conference was over. On March 23, with the first lights of the morning, the battles started with the 3rd Greek Corps from the West and the 1st Greek Army from the Southern Front. The Second Battle of İnönü, which continued between March 23 and April 1, ended with the victory of the Turks. With a second victory, the French began to withdraw their soldiers from Zonguldak and the Italians from Southern Anatolia. Although the Turkish Army applied its defense tactics very well in the İnönü Battles, it had shown that it was not yet strong in the attack in Aslıhanlar – Dumlupınar battles. This situation stirred the Greeks once again. İnönü wanted to occupy the Turkish positions on the line between Eskişehir, Afyon and Kütahya and eventually advance to Ankara. Moreover, it was strengthened with reinforcements. The Greeks, who attacked on July 10, continued until July 20. And eventually he forced the Turkish Army to retreat. Mustafa Kemal ordered his army to retreat to the east of the Sakarya River. Thus, he was planning to save time. Unfortunately, strategic regions such as Eskişehir, Kütahya and Afyon were lost in this war. There was almost mourning in the Turkish Grand National Assembly. This mourning environment brought about harsh discussions one after the other. However, it was a fact that the Greeks could not destroy the Turkish Army! Nothing was finished yet! Nevertheless, after the Kütahya-Eskişehir Wars, the reactions against Mustafa Kemal started to increase within the Grand National Assembly. Those who directed the opposition were also putting pressure on Mustafa Kemal to take over the army. In fact, their intention was to drive Mustafa Kemal away from Ankara and enable Enver Pasha to come to power. Those who pursued this intention obviously took Mustafa Kemal’s intelligence very lightly. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, in his speech to the Grand National Assembly on 4 August 1921, stated that he accepted to be the Commander-in-Chief; however, in order for the Commander-in-Chief to benefit, it was necessary to enact a law that would gather the powers of the Turkish Grand National Assembly for a period of 3 months. Pasha gave his answer very clearly. With the law passed unanimously on August 5, Mustafa Kemal Pasha became the Commander in Chief of the Armies of the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
As soon as he became the Commander-in-Chief, he immediately issued Tekalif-i Milliye Orders and called the people to mobilize to equip the army. With the answer he received, he was stronger now. Not only the army but also the people had no intention of giving up. Mustafa Kemal fell from the horse during the inspection in Polatlı on 12 August and his rib was broken. His pain could not prevent this situation. It was seen that the Greek Army’s offensive power was exhausted in the Sakarya Pitched Battle, which took place between 23 August and 13 September. The Turkish Army swept the Greeks from the east of the Sakarya River with a sudden attack. Following this great victory, the Parliament unanimously promoted the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal Pasha to the rank of Musir, that is, Marshal, on September 19th. In addition, he would be referred to as Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha with the title of Gazi.
Following this communication, on 13 October 1921, the “Kars Treaty” was signed between the Ankara Government and the Republic of South Caucasus. The eastern border was now completely safe. On 20 October 1921, France signed the Ankara Agreement with the Ankara Government. This agreement meant that France officially recognized the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Hatay – Iskenderun, except for Turkey’s present borders were drawn in.
At the end of the Sakarya Pitched Battle, Britain had officially recognized Ankara. On October 23, they made an agreement with the Turkish Grand National Assembly regarding the release of the prisoners. The Italians, realizing that they could not hold on to the Southern Aegean and Mediterranean regions, withdrew from the cities they occupied until the end of 1921.
And then the Great Offensive followed. After a year of meticulous preparations, the attack plan was put into practice on the morning of 26 August 1922. The Great Offensive that took place between 26-30 August was the last phase of the War of Independence. In the Battle of the Commander-in-Chief on 30 August, a large part of the Greek Army was destroyed in one day. On August 31, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha gathered his commanders at his headquarters in Çalhöy to pursue the Greeks who managed to escape, and ordered him to advance to the Aegean from three branches so that he would not unite with his forces around Izmir. On September 1, with the statement he published, he was giving that order, which will again be enchanting to the languages and minds.
“I would like all my friends to move forward considering that there will be other field battles in Anatolia and to continue to give everyone their intellect, valor and patriotism resources without competitors. Armies, your first target is the Mediterranean. Further!” His army had listened to the Commander-in-Chief’s word. Uşak was taken back on September 2. General Nikolaos Trikupis, the Commander-in-Chief of the Greek Army, was captured. The Turks were in Izmir on 9 September. With the Pursuit Operation initiated by the Commander-in-Chief, which was carried out until September 18, 1922, all the Greeks in Western Anatolia were deported. This success paved the way for the Mudanya Armistice Agreement. Here should pass a moment right away! In Karşıyaka, they prepared the house of a father and son whose relatives had been captured by the Greeks for Mustafa Kemal to stay. Greek King Constantine had stayed in this house before and he entered the house by breaking the Turkish Flag on the stairs. While preparing for Mustafa Kemal’s stay, father and son thought the day as the day of revenge, this time laid the Greek Flag on the stairs. When Mustafa Kemal turned to the stairs, telling what happened, “Please, wipe this stain with this response!” they said. Mustafa Kemal’s response was heartfelt and it smelled of respect.
“If she has passed, she has made a mistake; the flag, which is the honor of a nation, is not violated. I will not repeat her mistake. Lift the flag off the ground.”
Yes, Izmir was saved; but the problem was not over. Now it was time for the Allied Forces Occupation in Istanbul and the Straits Region. Without wasting time, they turned to Çanakkale and demanded that these places be evacuated immediately, including Thrace. Britain’s answer was to send additional navy and ground forces. Again in America on September 28, it ordered 13 of the new warships to be sent to the adjacent sea to Turkey.
After the Great Offensive, on October 11, the war ended completely with the signing of the Mudanya Armistice Agreement between the Turkish Grand National Assembly, Britain, Italy and France. Greeks did not attend the talks; Italy represented them. And according to this treaty, the war between the Turkish and Greek Armies was over. Eastern Thrace was handed over to the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Straits and Istanbul were left under the management of the TBMM Government. The Entente States would remain in Istanbul until the peace treaty was signed.
The Lausanne Peace Treaty
After the Mudanya Armistice Treaty, Lausanne, a neutral country, was chosen to conduct peace talks. Here was representing Ismet Inonu in Turkey. Following the conference meeting on 20 November 1920, the talks were interrupted on 4 February 1923. Negotiations began on April 23, 1923. And finally the Lausanne Peace Treaty was signed on July 24, 1923.
The southern border determined with the French in the Ankara Agreement was preserved. 9 months were given for the unscratchable Iraqi border to be resolved. Our border with the Greeks became the Meriç River. The Elm and the environment, war was given to Turkey as compensation. remaining in the hands of the Greek islands, near Anatolia deciding to disarm, he was given Gökçeada and Bozcaada in the Aegean Sea in Turkey. During the period from 1845 to the end of World War I, the debts of the Ottoman Empire were recalculated over the capital. With the Lausanne Straits Convention, free passage was provided through the straits. Capitulations have been removed completely. The Treaty of Lausanne, which included many other articles in addition to a few main articles, actually concluded the War of Independence in summary. So he repealed the Treaty of Sevres and Turkey, was founded on the Treaty of Lausanne.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha got married
Mustafa Kemal Pasha lived with Fikriye Hanım in the Ankara Station Building and Çankaya Mansion during the War of Independence. Fikriye Hanım was the nephew of her mother’s second wife, Ragıp Bey. Fikriye Hanım, who has tuberculosis, went to Germany for treatment. Mustafa Kemal later married Latife Hanım, the daughter of Uşakizade Muammer Bey, one of the few wealthy people in İzmir, on January 29, 1923. Fikriye Hanım was in love with Mustafa Kemal with all her heart. Marriage does not learn learns that he returned to Turkey and faded took the pavilion. However, Latife Hanım did not inform Mustafa Kemal and did not let Fikriye Hanım in. According to some sources, Fikriye Hanım, who could not accept this situation, committed suicide with a gun in Çankaya Mansion. The marriage of Mustafa Kemal and Latife Hanım was to continue until 5 August 1925. Mustafa Kemal Pasha had no children; but they had spiritual sons. When Bitlis was liberated from the Russian invasion in 1916, Brigadier General Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Commander of the 16th Corps, could not leave Abdürrahim (Tuncak), who lost his whole family in the war, and adopted him. He sent him to his mother and sister in Istanbul to look after him. In addition, Afife, Zehra Aylin, Rukiye Erkin, Nebile İrdelp, Sabiha Gökçen, Afet İnan, Sığırtmaç Mustafa and Ülkü Adatepe were also their spiritual children. Zehra Aylin, daughter of Mehmet of Amasya, died in 1936 by falling off the train near Amiens while traveling by express train from London to Paris.
Lost his mother;
Zübeyde Hanım had never seen her son Mustafa since he came to Anatolia in 1919. Moreover, he learned things like the Ottoman Sultan gave a death order about him. Mustafa, with his gnawed motherwort, met again only on June 14, 1922, in Adapazarı. He took his mother to Ankara. However, the climate here did not help Zübeyde Hanım.
Zübeyde Hanım went to İzmir on 18 December 1922 to seek treatment. It was his last days now; He was spending in Latife Hanım Mansion. Mustafa’s mother died on January 14, 1923, at the age of 66. (It lies in the mausoleum in Karşıyaka district of Izmir, built in 1940.)
A two-headed form of government emerged in Turkey after the National Struggle. Parliament’s November 1, 1922, adopted by 308 numbered “Turkey’s Grand National Assembly, the law that sovereignty and sovereign representative of the real McCoy” Vahid downloaded from the throne by decree from the Sultanate was abolished. The abolition of the sultanate also meant the official end of the legal existence of the Ottoman Empire, that is, the Istanbul Government.
On April 8, 1923, with the published Nine Principles, Mustafa Kemal laid the foundations of the People’s Party, which would form the basis of the new regime. Only the People’s Party participated in the second parliamentary elections held in April. Mustafa Kemal first stated that the Republic would be declared on September 22, 1923, when the Wiener Neue Freie Presse Correspondent answered the question of where the capital would be:
“As to the issue of Turkey’s payitaht. The answer revealed itself: DUdUr payitaht Ankara Republic of Turkey. “
Fethi Bey was holding the posts of Prime Minister and Head of Internal Affairs at the same time, and on October 25, he announced that he was leaving his post as the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Ali Fuat Pasha, who was the Vice President of the Assembly on the same day, left and was appointed as the Army Inspector. Now there were two vacant seats and Rauf Bey was elected as the Deputy Chairman of the Assembly and Mr. Sabit Bey was elected as the Ministry of Interior. Both names were MPs who were opposed to Mustafa Kemal. Actually, Mustafa Kemal Pasha was not very happy with the situation; On October 26, Prime Minister Fethi asked the government to resign, except Fevzi Pasha, the “Deputy General Presidency of Erkan-ı Harbiye” and not accept the post if they were re-elected. Thus, a government crisis arose. It has been reported that the new members of the Council of Ministers will be elected on October 29.
Gazi Mustafa Kemal, who thinks that an innovation is needed upon these developments, called İsmet Pasha and a few other people to a meeting in Çankaya on the night of October 28, 1923 and said, “Gentlemen! We will declare the Republic tomorrow!” he announced his decision. Then, they were alone with İsmet Pasha and prepared the motion that would provide the necessary amendment to the Constitutional Law. October 29 was a long day.
The discussion of the establishment of the Council of Ministers was started by the People’s Party. The problem could not be solved, because Mustafa Kemal was asked to explain his thoughts. Gazi Mustafa Kemal presented the draft aiming the proclamation of the Republic to the information of the group and declared that the way out of the crisis they were in was the obligation to change the Constitution. The bill was passed by the party group. Following the General Assembly Meeting held at 18:45 on the same evening, on Monday, 29 October 1923, at 20.30, the applause of the deputies and “Long live the Republic!” Republic was declared with his shouts.
President Mustafa Kemal’s revolutions
Presidential election was held immediately after the proclamation of the Republic. All of the 158 deputies participated in the voting and Gazi Mustafa Kemal unity with the people, was declared the first president of Turkey. In accordance with the 1924 Constitution, the Turkish Grand National Assembly would elect Mustafa Kemal as the President three more times, in 1927, 1931 and 1935. Now was the time to bring fundamental changes to the level of contemporary civilizations Turkey. Some of them were as follows:
On March 3, 1924, madrasahs were closed with the adoption of the Unification Law. all schools within the boundaries of the Republic of Turkey, was connected to the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Education. It was aimed to gain a national qualification in education. In addition, the caliphate was abolished with a law adopted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on the same date. On 30 November 1925, the closure of the lodges and lodges was accepted by the parliament. On November 1, 1928, new Turkish letters were accepted in the parliament and the Nation Schools were established to teach reading and writing to the public. On November 24, 1928, Gazi Mustafa Kemal was declared the head teacher.
On February 17, 1926, the Civil Code, which was translated and edited from the Swiss Civil Code, was accepted. This law, which came into force on October 4, brought a new order to family life by introducing equal rights in marriage with a single woman, the requirement for official marriage and inheritance. Women were given the right to vote and be elected in the local elections in 1930 and in the general elections in 1934.
With the Surname Law enacted on June 21, 1934, every Turkish citizen started to receive a surname to be used by his family in addition to his name. The principles of Secularism, Republicanism, Nationalism, Populism, Statism, and Revolution, which were included in the program of the Republican People’s Party on May 10, 1931, entered the Constitution on February 5, 1937.
With the Surname Law enacted on June 21, 1934, every Turkish citizen started to receive a surname to be used by his family in addition to his name. The principles of Secularism, Republicanism, Nationalism, Populism, Statism, and Revolution, which were included in the program of the Republican People’s Party on May 10, 1931, entered the Constitution on February 5, 1937.
With the adoption of the new alphabet, identity cards were also renewed. In the wallet “993.814-B serial and 51 line number” Name: Kemal, Surname: Atatürk; In the wallet “993.815-B serial and 51 serial number”, Name: Kamâl, Surname: Atatürk, Occupation and Social Status: Reisicumhur, Marital Status: Not Married. The log is Ankara Vilâyeti Çankaya Mahallesi Household No. 139, Volume: No. 56 and Beach No. It looked to be 49.
The population record was changed to “Gaziantep Bey Mahallesi” on January 27, 1933. Now, in the query made on the website of the General Directorate of Population and Citizenship Affairs, TR ID number: 10000000146, the province where it is registered: Gaziantep, district: Şahinbey, neighborhood: Bey, volume no: 10, family number: 44, individual order number: 1, name: Gazi Mustafa Kemal, surname: Atatürk, father’s name: Ali Rıza Bey, mother’s name: Zübeyde Hanım, year of birth: 1881, gender: appeared to be male.
Atatürk with his interests and personal characteristics;
Atatürk likes to read books, dance, listen to music, ride horses and swim. He felt incredibly peaceful when he was interested in sports and arts. He loved playing Zeybek, listening to Rumelian folk songs and wrestling. He also enjoyed playing billiards and backgammon. Having a very rich library, Atatürk especially would not drop the history books. He even had a memory about the books.
A politician was bothered that he was constantly reading books instead of dealing with other issues and asked Atatürk, “Did you go to Samsun by reading a book?” he asked. Atatürk, on the other hand, replied to this person with the following words: “I was poor when I was a child. When I received two cents, I would give a penny of it to the book. If this were not so, I would not have done any of this.” Undoubtedly, the books were his most valuable friends. He had two other special friends whom he dearly loved: his horse named Sakarya and his dog Fox! He used to invite artists, scientists, state people and friends to Çankaya Mansion and gave dinners where country problems were discussed and pleasant conversations were also made. The most striking feature of these dishes, and indeed in every setting, is his attention paid to clean and tidy clothing. He was so sensitive about order that even the trench would tidy up his house. Maybe he was getting strength from creating a space for himself in the war environment and feeling like his home.
“Atatürk, who spoke advanced French and a little German, was also a nature lover. So much so that he frequently visited Atatürk Forest Farm and personally participated in the works carried out with the aim of transition to modern agriculture”
“November 10, 1938“
Atatürk’s health condition had begun to deteriorate by 1937. In 1938, doctors were brought from Europe. Dr. Eppinger, without waiting for his other colleague, immediately examined Atatürk and said “A difficult case!” Then the expression on his face did not dissolve. Professor from Germany. Bergmann also arrived in Istanbul the day after his Australian colleague. After his examination was completed, Turkish and foreign doctors came together and started to write a report. “Atatürk has cirrhosis.” was diagnosed for the first time that day. Moreover, they added to the end of the report: “The result is serious and dire.”
His aide, Salih Bozok, could not find a recipe for his sadness, and he decided to announce this secret to Ismet Pasha in a letter to Ankara. She could not stop her tears while writing her letter.
Although Hasan Rıza was very shaken, he was aware that he had to do it. Atatürk was determined to donate all his money, stocks and the movables and real estate in Çankaya to the Republican People’s Party. Of course, he thought very gracefully about his family and relatives.
Finally, on September 8, 12 liters of water were drawn from Atatürk’s stomach. He enjoyed being able to take a deep sigh. But still he was not doing well. Now he had only one wish: he wanted to be in Ankara on October 29th. “Let’s go to Ankara. Whatever I am going to be there. ” he was saying; but he admitted, though difficult, that this was not possible. The Assembly appointed Celal Bayar to deliver the opening speech.
On September 21, 12 liters of water was taken from the abdomen for the second time. This operation was actually his fatal blow. He was slowly preparing for the end. On October 13, another water extraction operation hit the door. Another 10.5 liters of water were drawn. Ataturk was almost okay with the horrible end expected on October 19; it gave hope. Still, there was not much hope. When November 7th came, it was the last stage of the disease. He has been half asleep and half awake since October 29. When he woke up, he was trying to fill up with milk, rice water and fruit juices. He said in an almost whispering tone that he wanted to eat artichokes. It wasn’t in Istanbul; It was ordered to Hatay immediately. But, unfortunately, the meal would not be fortune.
On November 8, Dr. He was in a coma for the last time, vaguely saying “Aleykümselam” at a moment when he looked carefully at Idelp. He would not wake up again. The night that connects November 9 to November 10 was quite troubling. Oxygen was given to Atatürk at short intervals. Towards the morning the wheezing in his throat decreased. Although Istanbul woke up to a sunny day at dawn, it was not in anyone’s eyes. While the light of those who were waiting for Atatürk with hope gradually dimmed, that of the sun was also unfair.
At 9:00, her chest began to rise and fall rapidly. All the country radios were just waiting at his head. Nobody was talking. It was Atatürk’s last 5 minutes in the world and his eyes were closed. Mehmet Kamil Berk, who was waiting by the bedside in the room, was constantly wetting his lips with a wet cotton ball. His heart, like everyone else, was not based on this separation. It had been a long time since he stopped getting in the way of tears. It was a full life that slipped before your eyes. By the way Op. Mim was leaning on Kemal Öke’s shoulder and sobbing. Prof. Dr. Sureyya Hidayet Serter and Dr. Abravaya Marmaralı was controlling the base reflex with a pale yellow skin. Prof. Dr. Akil Muhtar Özden is now ecstatic, “Oh my God!” She could not stop her hectic steps muttering. The Guard Commander İsmail Hakkı Tekçe and his General Secretary Hasan Rıza Soyak were standing on the left side of the bed as if pinned. His comrades-in-arms Kılıç Ali seemed to have his hands folded in front of him and he was standing in silence for the last time. Everyone in the room was probably going through the saddest moment of his life. At one point, when Hasan Rıza could not stand and came to the eye with Kılıç Ali, he said, “Kılıç, look, a great history is passing away.” said.
“And the clock was exactly past 9 to 5”
Everyone in the room said goodbye to Atatürk for the last time. Only “If my heart had a grain of wheat falling between two millstones, it would only be crushed this much.” His aide, Salih Bozok, could not find a way to say goodbye. Unconsciously he went down the palace stairs almost as if to roll. He entered a room he found empty downstairs and closed the door. After a while, a single shot was heard from inside. Salih aimed at his heart.