Apple (Malus domestica) is a type of fruit cultivated from the rosaceae (Rosaceae) family. It is believed that the apple first appeared in Northern Anatolia, around the Southern Caucasus, in the southwestern regions of Russia, and in Central Asia (east of Kazakhstan). The species spread all over the world from Central Asia. It has a fruit with a very high nutritional value. Throughout history, it is estimated that 1000 different apple varieties were produced with cultural studies. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian tradition.
The word “apple”, formerly spelled æppel in Old English, is derived from the Proto-Germanic root *ap(a)laz, which could also mean fruit in general. Towards the end of the 17th century, this word served as a general term for all fruits.
The closest relatives of the apple are pears and maltese plums. It is a small tree with a deciduous crown extending to 5–12 m. The leaves are arranged in a reciprocal, simple oval shape, the tip is pointed and the edges are toothed, the bottom face is slightly pubescent. The leaves of 5–12 cm long and 3–6 cm wide have a stem of 2–5 cm. The flowers open with the leaves. White flowers are usually light pink when first opened. It has 5 petals with a diameter of 2.5-3.5 cm. The fruit ripens in autumn, usually 5–8 cm in diameter.
World apple production has approached 75 million tons in recent years. The world’s largest apple producing country is China, with approximately 30 million tons. Then comes the US and Turkey. Turkey’s share in world apple production is around 3-4%.
Apple is a cold-temperate climate fruit. It usually grows in latitudes of 30 ° -50 ° in the world. High light intensity is necessary to ensure color formation in apples. The apple tree is resistant to harsh winters with low temperatures. During the winter rest, the wood fragments withstand between -35 ° C and –40 ° C, blooming flowers –2.2 ° C and –2.3 ° C, and small fruits –1.1 ° C and –2.2 ° C. It is the type of fruit that needs winter rest the most. In order to meet the colding need of the apples in the trials, it should remain below 7.2 ° C for 2300-3500 hours depending on the varieties. As a result of insufficient cooling, some of the flowers die, and the opening of the remaining flowers is later and irregular than normal. Thus, flowers that open late are poured due to insufficiency of fertilization. In apple trees that have not been able to remove their leaves, leaf eyes do not last and the tree remains bare. Apple also does not like high summer heat. When the temperature rises above 40 ° C, growth stops, and at higher temperatures, damage begins to occur.
Apple generally gives successful results in many soil types. The structure of the subsoil in the place where the garden will be established is more important than the variety and quality of the soil surface. Subsoil should be drained in such a way that plant roots will never remain in the water and facilitate the propagation of the roots. A hard and water-retaining sub-soil prevents development, adversely affects the growth and lifetime of the tree.
Loamy, loamy-sandy and sandy-loam permeable, moist soils with adequate lime and humus are suitable for apple cultivation. Due to the inhibition of iron intake in very calcareous soils, yellowness is observed in the plant. Slightly acidic soils with a soil depth of 2 m or more are preferred for apples. Soil analysis should be done before the apple orchard is established. A garden should not be installed in places where there is lime, salt problems, and areas with high ground water level and low soil thickness.
Two kinds of rootstocks are used in apple sapling production. Settle on rootstocks obtained from seed; Vegetatively produced rootstocks are also called clonal rootstocks. Seeds used in rootstock production are taken from wild or cultivated varieties. The rootstocks form tall trees and show a long period of youth infertility. Therefore, varieties grafted to the seed rootstock lie late in the fruit. Apple seedlings are planted between 15-25 per decare, depending on the planting distances.
Apple clone rootstocks produced vegetatively range from very stunted to very strong. These rootstocks are propagated by the modified top dip method, a combination of top dip and trench dip. It is an advantage to know the growth force of vegetative rootstocks and their resistance to some diseases and pests.
In apple cultivation, as the tree becomes stunted, steps towards intensive fruit growing are taken. In intensive fruit growing, higher yields are obtained as more trees are used per unit area. The product is taken at an early age from the orchards established from scrub trees. Labor and expenses are reduced, culture and maintenance practices are easier and higher quality fruit production is possible.
Apple varieties are divided into 3 groups as summer, autumn and winter according to their ripening time. Some features of apple cultivars that are intensely cultivated are as follows:
Jerseymac: The trees are very strong and highly productive, and the fruits are large and puffy; It is a summery variety, white and juicy fruit. It is resistant to carrying. It ripens in the middle of July. Red Delicious and Golden Delicious are pollinators.
William’s Pride: It’s tree grows medium strength. It is the best among summer varieties in terms of fruit quality and yield. The fruit is medium in size, slightly tart, juicy, aromatic and crispy. Fruit color is dark red on yellow green backround. 2-3 of August. The week is harvested. Pollinators are Golden Delicious, Gala, Jerseymac and Granny Smith.
Gala: It is a middle season variety. There are many types of mutants such as Mondial, Royal, Galaxy. Trees grow strongly. Flesh is yellowish, juicy and hard. A high amount of product is constantly obtained, dilution and fruit quality increase. It is harvested on the 4th week of August. It is not stored for too long. Pollinators are Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Jerseymac.
Apple is a complete vitamin store. There are 85% water, 12% sugar, 0.45% protein, 0.4% fat, 1% nitrogenous substances, pectin, organic acids, calcium, iron, fluorine potassium, magnesium, silicon, sodium, manganese, zinc, copper, vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, C, G, E, K and PP with phosphorus, sulfur, boron and tannins in the composition of the apple. Vitamins are more in the shell. Apple has all the water-soluble vitamins. The high amount of vitamin C (around 13 mg in 100 g of fruit meat) is equivalent to a person’s daily need for vitamin C.
Apple reduces the risk of developing Bowel Cancer.
There are only 50 calories in apple and it is satisfactory due to the petkin contained in it. Since it is low-calorie, it prevents obesity and positively affects blood sugar level and high blood pressure.
An apple eaten before lunch plays a role in regulating the growth and reduction of bacteria in the gut, thereby preventing constipation.
Vitamin C in apples strengthens the body’s defense system. As a result, cold viruses cannot enter the body.
Reduces the risk of diabetes
It removes bad breath.
Prostate, lung cancer, colon and breast cancer
reduces the risk.
Rich fiber content to large intestine activities
Some chemicals in apples are also protective for brain diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s.
It positively affects the secretion of estrogen hormone during women’s menopause periods.