Kiwi is the common name for the cultivars and edible fruits belonging to these plants from Actinidia deliciosa, a vine-like woody climber plant species and hybrids between A. deliciosa and other Actinidia species.
In 1904, it was defined as “the taste of edible fruits, walnut-sized and ripe gooseberry” and led to the name of Chinese gooseberry. In 1962, New Zealand growers began calling it “kiwi” for export marketing, and in 1974 this name was considered commercial. Kiwi has since become a common name for all green kiwi in the genus Actinidia.
Kiwi is homeland China, comes from Yangtse Valley in the south of China. When the official records are examined, it is possible to find the trace of kiwi fruit until the 12th century. The plant was rarely bred, as it was often collected from the wild and consumed for medicinal purposes. A few species of the plant, discovered by Europeans in the 1850s, spread to New Zealand, England and America in the early 1900s.
Kiwi fruit first arrived in New Zealand in 1904. It was developed, bred and grown by gardeners for 25 years, and some large-fruited breeds were selected. In 1935, large-fruited breeds were sent to the “Plant Introduction Station” in Chico, California. In 1960, researchers began to develop viable methods in California, encouraging farmers to plant this new crop. Thus, a new industry was born in the early 70s. Rapid development in Mediterranean countries (Italy, Spain, Greece and finally Turkey), the US, Chile and when China is involved in production and close the year in kiwifruit production in the beginning of Iran with 2017 has become grown in 23 countries. Its high nutritional content, especially its richness in vitamin C, can be consumed by almost any age group, and most importantly, being a delicious fruit has led to increased interest in kiwi.
One of the most widely grown varieties today is the “Hayward” variety originating in New Zealand. The Hayward variety, first acquired and named after the New Zealand (Auckland) producer Hayward Wright in 1925, also constitutes 90 – 95% of the kiwi cultivated worldwide. With its fruit size (80 – 100 g.) And long storage period, Hayward is still the most ideal variety. Following the Hayward variety is the Qinmei variety, which is grown more limitedly.
Kiwi is a fast growing, perennial herb that can grow up to 12 m with its cuddling and climbing feature. Its flowers are white in color, since it is a two-house plant like fig and papaya, female and male flowers are located on different trees. Kiwi, whose root structure is quite weak, is a fringe rooted plant.
Kiwi fruits are about the size and shape of an egg. Its outer surface is relatively hard and covered with short hairs. It has a soft shell and its flesh part varies from emerald green to light green depending on the variety. It is a fruit with around 1200 – 1400 small black seeds around the bone-colored part in the central part. Fruits are generally in the form of bunches on the branches and 5 or 6 can be found together or in the form of 2 or 3 bunches. On the other hand, since fruit dilution should be made in terms of agriculture, it is generally allowed to develop as single or maximum 2 – 3.
Although Actinidia species are considered as 50-60 species until recent years, this number is increased up to 76 by some researchers.
In terms of nutrient content, kiwi is a very rich fruit. Especially rich in vitamin C, kiwi contains 93 – 105 milligrams of vitamin C in 100 grams. With this feature, it is a much richer fruit than orange. There are 53 milligrams of an average of 100 grams of orange, 28 milligrams of mango, 34 milligrams of grapefruit, 15 milligrams of pineapple, 57 milligrams of strawberry, and 90 milligrams of vitamin C in broccoli. Of course, the vitamin content may vary depending on the variety and growing conditions. Kiwi is a fruit useful for human health with its low calorie and fiber richness. In terms of nutrient content, 100 grams of kiwi contains 2 – 3 grams of fiber, 4 – 5 grams of glucose, 20 – 34 milligrams of calcium, 312 – 316 milligrams of potassium.
In terms of growing conditions, the places where the summers are hot and humid and the winters are warm are ideal. Kiwi is a plant that requires a temperature between 10 ° – 30 ° C during the vegetation period (230 – 260 days), and is very negatively affected by high and especially low temperatures. Kiwi, which is also very sensitive to frost, is affected very quickly and serious losses can occur due to this. So much so that production can be adversely affected for 2 years after severe frost.
In terms of water demand, kiwifruit has 1000 – 1500 millimeter precipitation demand during vegetation and it needs moist soil. In addition, the relatively regular distribution of precipitation throughout the year is also important for kiwi cultivation. Wind is an important climate element to be considered in kiwi cultivation. Kiwi vineyards, which are negatively affected by permanent winds due to the weak root system, should be installed adjacent to other forest plants or in places protected from continuous winds. Another drawback of strong winds on kiwi is that it damages the young shoots and reduces the yield. Kiwi, which is a selective plant in terms of soil, develops especially in low-lime and permeable soils. Due to its weak root system, it shows very good development in deep, loamy and sandy – loamy soils. The presence of non-heavy soils is very important in kiwi cultivation, otherwise root collar rot is encountered.
Especially the installation of the “T Hanging System / Wire Pole System” is very important in a planned kiwi vine facility. “T” shaped poles are erected. Suspended cables are stretched between the two poles and the distance between the two poles is considered to be capable of carrying the estimated fruit weight. For an ideal aquaculture, 6 x 4 meters range is recommended, but this range may vary depending on the variety and land availability.
Due to the botanical characteristics of the kiwifruit, male and male flowers are found in different trees, and the plant should be considered as one male per 8 – 9 females. Male / fertilizer individuals should be positioned in the center of the vineyards. Depending on this feature of kiwi, it is also an important point to have bees in vineyards. It is thought that the high amounts of vitamin C and antioxidants contained in kiwis can really help treat asthma patients. A study in 2000 revealed a positive improvement in lung function among those who regularly consume fresh fruit,