The pear tree and shrub are a species of genus Pyrus in the family Rosaceae, bearing the pomaceous fruit of the same name. The pear grown in the temperate climatic countries of both hemispheres is one of the most important fruit trees in the world. Several species of pear are valued for their edible fruit and juices while others are cultivated as trees.
It grows naturally in Western Europe, North Africa and all of Asia but the motherland of the pear is thought to be the Mountains of God in Central Asia. There are about 30 species in the world. Some of those: Pyrus amygdaliformis (Almond-leaved pear), Pyrus anatolica, Pyrus armeniacifolia (Apricot-leaved pear), Pyrus betulifolia (Birchleaf pear), Pyrus boissieriana, Pyrus bourgaeana (Iberian pear), Pyrus × bretschneideri (Chinese white pear; also classified as a subspecies of Pyrus pyrifolia)
There is evidence that pear has been used as a food since prehistoric times. It is possible to find traces of pear cultivation until ancient times. Many traces have been found in excavations around Lake Zurich. The word “pear” or the like can be seen in all Celtic languages.
The Chinese believed that the pear was the “symbol of immortality”. In fact, the word “li” in Chinese meant both pear and separation. According to this interesting belief, friends or lovers should not “eat” by sharing the pear among themselves, or this could cause separation.
Pear was also the subject of legends. In ancient Greek and Roman mythology, the pear was considered the sacred fruit of the goddess Hera (wife of the chief god Zeus), Aphrodite (goddess of love and beauty) and Pomona (goddess only, garden and harvest goddess).
In the mythology of the Vaynahs, a community that lived in Chechnya, the pear was one of the sacred trees just like walnuts. They never cut these trees because they believed that well-intentioned spirits lived in these trees. The French and the British especially love the pear, and have created many different recipes with it.
Pear fruit is thought to have a unique aesthetic shape, whereas not all pears are “pear shaped” as we are used to. For example, you cannot distinguish the fruits of the “Pyrus pyrifolia”, known as the Asian pear or Nashi pear, from apples as an appearance. To understand that it is not an apple, you need to look at its fruit with its sandy inner texture.
Pear has the feature of being green, yellow, red and brown. It is a medium-sized tree and reaches a height of 10-17 meters (33-56 ft), often with a tall, narrow crown; several species of bushes. The leaves are 2-12 centimeters long. The leaf shape can be broad and oval or narrow and lanceolate. It is arranged alternately. It is bright green in some species and dense silvery in some.
Pears are usually produced by steeling and grafting up to one year old. When he is about 4-7 years old after his seedlings are planted, he starts to bear fruit slowly. When it reaches 8-10 years old, 30-50 kilos of fruit can be collected from an average amut tree.
When the cultivation characteristics are examined, it is seen that the pear is not resistant to winter cold. Fruit is mostly temperate fruit. Accordingly, the places where it is grown varies. Pear gardens should be established in areas that are not exposed to frost with mild breeze.
However, the need for winter cooling of the pears reduces cultivation. When it needs cooling, it should spend approximately 1200-1300 hours below 7.2 degrees. It is very important to achieve this balance. Otherwise, the problem of giving flowers or fruits occurs in pear trees. It is a drought-resistant fruit.
Pears are usually produced by grafting or cuttings on one year old rootstock pear seedlings. Pear trees are very long-lived (50-75 years), and if they are not taken care of, their height grows well. A pear tree that starts to bear fruit 4-7 years after planting can yield 25–50 kg of fruit when it is 8-10 years old.
The common feature of all pear fruits is not the shape, but the sandy texture of their fruits. In addition, just like the close relative of the pear, Apple (Malus domestica), its wood is a very tight and high-quality wood, making it useful for making musical instruments and furniture. While some pear species are grown for their fruit, some species are grown as rootstock or ornamental plants. “Pyrus calleryana” and “Pyrus salicifolia” are the species that are widely grown as rootstock and ornamental pears.
Now let’s talk about the benefits of this delicious fruit. It is among the most used foods in world cuisine, especially in desserts and fruit salads. As the pear is consumed fresh, it can be used by making jams, desserts and cakes. At the same time, you can often see pear juice in the markets. In the summer, nobody will say no to ice-cold pear juice.
If you eat before you start eating, it gives you a feeling of satiety, so it allows you to eat more, making it easier to lose weight in a healthy and slow way. For this reason, experts recommend that people with weight problems eat 1 pear before meals. It can also be consumed by adding it to salads.
Pear is one of the fruits that fight the free radicals that damage the body the most. Vitamin K and C in it strengthens the immune system. It gives the vitamin C that the body needs to fight against all diseases. It regulates the digestive system. For this reason, it prevents problems such as constipation and hemorrhoids. It is good for stomach problems and indigestion. It regulates bowel functions, but can cause diarrhea when eaten too much.
Those who are considering having children can approach. It is an important source of folic acid for expectant mothers. It has a content rich in minerals such as calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium and sodium. Due to these valuable minerals and vitamins it contains, it is recommended that children of growing age consume it. The fiber, which has a cholesterol-lowering effect, is very beneficial for the heart. Eating one pear during the day reduces the risk of having a heart attack in half. The same fibrous structure also prevents the body from many types of cancer, including colon cancer.
Pear prevents hypertension, has a blood pressure lowering feature. As it has the ability to regulate blood sugar, diabetics are recommended to eat one pear per day.
Researches conducted on pear; has revealed benefits such as refreshing the body, relieving fatigue, reducing stress and calming. It also reduces the risk of pear paralysis by providing energy and making you feel fit. It provides strengthening of bones and teeth. With this feature, it helps treatment in bone diseases such as rheumatism. It reduces the risk of getting breast cancer. It allows the bruises formed as a result of any blow to heal more quickly.
If the kidneys are sand or stones, it helps to lower them. It is good for brain health. It is beneficial for gout, has the ability to clear blood and remove toxins from the body, it is good for nausea and vomiting.
We share the recipe of pear jam for those who want to try:
- Peel the pods of 500 grams of medium ripeness. Remove the core with the core and the core in the middle.
- Finely chop the pears.
- Take the pears in a saucepan. Add 2 cups of water and 1.5 cups of granulated sugar. Start cooking on low heat.
- Then add 3 cloves and 1 stick cinnamon in it. Stir in this way, cook over low heat.
- It will take time for the pear jam to become viscous and its color to change. For this reason, you will need to cook for 40 minutes, stirring regularly.
- When it starts to take its color, add the juice of half a lemon. Remove cinnamon and cloves from it.
- Stir and cool at room temperature. Then you can transfer it to a tightly closed jar and consume it whenever you want.