Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a perennial herb that can grow up to one meter from the ginger family, blooms in thin-long leaves, yellow-red colors, root tubers are used as a spice and medicine. It grows in tropical or semi-tropical climates such as India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan, primarily China. It is the same with its appearance in terms of its localization.
Root tubers are generally used as a spice in many cuisines of the world. Ginger from South China first goes to India; then it spread to Southeast Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean. The dried roots of the ginger plant in the formless, peeled or unpeeled form or the ground of them are the part used. Participates in donuts. In addition, ginger is used to make soda, wine, pickles and jam. It participates in soups, potatoes, sausages, various stuffed, grilled meats, cold cuts, rice, all kinds of white cheese, various vegetables, fruit salads, various cakes, cookies and cakes in the kitchen.
There are important active ingredients in the composition of the ginger root. Fresh ginger is richer in active ingredient; It contains 80% water, 2% protein, 1% fat, 12% starch, calcium, phosphorus, iron, B and C vitamins. The rate of water in dry ginger is 10%. The nutrient content of 1 teaspoon of ginger that can be used as a spice is negligible except for manganese. This amount of ginger meets 79% of the daily manganese need.
In moderate use amounts, Ginger is generally considered safe by the FDA. However, it can interact with drugs such as Coumadin and Warfarin, which are constantly used, and can change the safe levels of these drugs. Allergic rashes when used in powder form, although defined as safe, can cause symptoms such as heartburn, gas, and nausea. It can cause adverse effects in people with gallstones.
They have proven that ginger helps 40% indigestion and stomach swelling. Ginger, besides being effective against stomach pain and nausea, removes gas from the stomach and intestines. It prevents diarrhea and removes intestinal disorders. It has been observed that it is good for pregnancy, motion (motion sickness, seasickness, etc.) disease and nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. It prevents constipation by relaxing the smooth muscles in the intestines and allowing food to move through the intestines. Since 1980, it has been argued that ginger has a relaxing effect on ulcer and reflux. It helps to remove toxins in the body by increasing the body temperature. With regular use of ginger, it has a decreasing effect on the rate of stroke and heart attack. It has LDL cholesterol lowering feature. It is known that ginger oil also has positive effects on shortness of breath. It helps to speed up reactions to infections by strengthening the immune system.
Ginger has proven to be the most effective plant against fungal infections. Thanks to its antiseptic effect, it is also effective against stomach and intestinal infections, and even food poisoning. It has been stated that it has a pain relieving effect by acting on specialized cells that can receive various stimuli at the nerve endings. It has been observed that it directly relieves pain and causes inflammation that causes pain. As it is good for menstrual pain, it is effective in menstrual cramps. It has been observed that it has positive effects on arthritis (joint inflammation), reduces foot knee pain in studies and is effective in osteoarthritis. As a result of researches at the University of Minnesota, the effects on colon cancer delayed the growth of cells were observed. It is also known to be effective in ovarian cancer. Daily consumption is 1000 milligrams or 1-2 drops of ginger oil.
Besides the benefits of ginger, there are of course also damages due to overuse. It causes heartburn thanks to its sharp smell, creates rhythm disturbance, skin rash and depressive effect. Due to the blood reconstitution feature of ginger, consumption should be stopped before surgery. It is recommended that ginger should not be given to anyone younger than 2 years old. If used for children, one third of the recommended dose should be used. It should not be consumed with blood thinners. The effects of ginger, such as garlic and onion, to prevent blood clotting have been observed as a result of researches. Consideration should be given to the amount of consumption during pregnancy. Overused ginger can cause miscarriage during pregnancy. It is recommended to consume in pregnant and lactating women under the recommendation and control of a physician. They stated the dose to be used daily as 1.2 gr.
A recipe that will warm you up in cold weather and strengthen your immunity: Grate any amount of fresh ginger jar into any jar. Add the honey and lemon juice on it and keep it in the refrigerator. You can consume 1-2 glasses of warm water during the day.
Growing ginger is somewhat similar to potato. It is propagated vegetatively and its rhizomes are used as seeds. It is reported that the most suitable sowing time in irrigated agriculture conditions is February. In ginger cultivation in India, the pillows are prepared in approximately 1m width, 15cm height and appropriate length in planting on the pillow. They are lined up with a distance of 50-60 cm between the pillows. In order to provide drainage between the pillows, channels are opened between every 25 beds. Because ginger likes soils with a good drainage but also suitable moisture. Planting in the row, 20-25 cm above the row, 40-45 cm between rows. It is done.
Planting depth is 5 cm. It is up. Rhizomes separated as seeds for planting 2.5-5.0 cm. long and weighing 20-25 g, at least one live eye each. Approximately 1500-1800 kg of rhizomes are planted in a hectare. The seed is kept in 0.3% mancozeb for 30 minutes before planting. After drying for 3-4 hours in the shade, sowing is done. The first shoots appear on the soil surface in 10-20 days. Irrigation is done 4-10 days apart and when necessary. If the air temperature rises above 32ºC in the first periods, there is a possibility of sunburn on young shoots. Irrigation should generally be done in the heat without putting the plant under sunburn, drought stress and water stress.
The best fertilizer that can be applied to ginger is farm manure or compost fertilizer. Accordingly, 25-30 tons of compost, 2 tons of Neem pulp (ground rosary seed), 50 kg / ha P2O3 are applied to the hectare during planting. It is recommended to give 37.5 kg / ha N 40 days after planting, 37.5 kg / ha N and 25 kg / ha K20 after 90 days. Application of Neem meal during planting reduces the occurrence rate of rhizome diseases and increases the yield.
Harvesting of ginger and processing of the product requires intensive labor and is similar to the harvest of potatoes. The harvest of the product to be consumed as vegetables can be within 6 months. The harvest of the dry product is made approximately 8 months after planting. If cultivation is carried out under irrigated agriculture conditions, it is recommended to stop the irrigation process three weeks before harvest. Harvesting is done in India in a way that does not harm rhizomes. Soil, stalk and similar plant parts on the rhizomes are cleaned in a way that they do not damage the rhizome. Rhizomes to be consumed as fresh ginger are separated, washed thoroughly and left to dry in the sun for a day.
The material to be prepared dry is kept in water for 6-7 hours. Then the foreign substances on it are rubbed and cleaned. The excess crust on the rhizomes removed from the water is stripped. While doing this process, it is important not to damage the rhizome. The cleared rhizomes are left to dry in the sun for a week. In large enterprises or collection areas, the product is washed again and treated with hot water for a short time. Thus, rhizomes are cleaned from fungi, bacteria and other pests. Then, according to their size, lengthening is done.