Goethe is a shocking personality… Throughout his life, he has been pursuing that he will understand who he is, why he came to the world, whichever interests he chooses in the right direction. Death drew a life within the framework of their loves and never believed that he was getting old regardless of the years passed. Fortunately, he decided that at some point in his life he came to the world to write the most.
When Goethe was born in Frankfurt on August 28, 1749, the son of Catherina Elisabeth (Textor) and Johann Caspar Goethe, in the house on Grober Hirschgraben Street, today known as Goethe House, his family named him “Johann Wolfgang”.
His mother, Catherina, belonged to one of Frankfurt’s wealthy and well-known families. A lively woman, Catherina was 17 when she married Johann, a 38-year-old lawyer. After Goethe, he gave birth to four more children. However, only Goethe and their daughter Cornelia Friederike Christina survived. Three dead children came out of this house. After the early losses, Goethe and his brother Cornelia lived a life of affection for each other.
His father, Johann Caspar, was a lawyer, yes; but he was not doing his job. On the other hand, he continued to live without financial difficulties for his family. Upon his legal education in Leipzig, he was working in the City Council of the Empire. Johann had always stood by his family and empowered them with his investigative spirit, knowledgeable side and solid character. Goethe was growing up in a fortunate family, let alone losses.
Goethe started his education in a public school in 1756. He continued his education here until 1758. Johann, who wanted to raise his son in the thought of the Enlightenment, became his son’s first teacher. In addition, he ensured a good education by hiring private tutors for Goethe from an early age. He was ready to pour every single particle of light that he found in his own way into his son’s path. Goethe, who received special education in subjects such as scientific subjects, art and religion, would also learn languages such as English, French, Greek, Italian and Latin well. There was also a freedom in his understanding of religion from the education his father offered him. Goethe would always feel his free side, search Islam with his curiosity about the East, learn Arabic and Persian and read the Iranian poet Hafez. Art was an undeniable detail in his education life. Art branches such as playing the piano and cello, horse riding and dancing were also included in their education. Visual arts, in particular, entered his life in decisive forms in the light of a determined event. Seven Years’ War! Upon the occupation of Frankfurt by the Austrian-French union, the headquarters building was built, the home of the Goethe. Art couldn’t stay away from even such an atmosphere. Goethe became acquainted with French art thanks to the commanders who were fond of fine arts. Goethe took his disciplined, serious stance and mind from his father, and his imagination, emotional side, and expressiveness from his father.
All my age would be based on the exquisite harmony of this exquisite chemistry. He would begin to discover this aspect of it, which formed a balanced integrity, by feeling it from childhood. In the light of this balance, the subject did not come to literature, of course. Goethe became interested in literature at a young age. The plays played by the French Theater Troupes, which were shown to Frankfurt, which was under French occupation, conquered Goethe’s children’s heart. He had a great passion for French Literature after this cruise. In addition, the stories her mother told about her sleep at night had penetrated her heart, and the joy of the Luther-Protestant family, where she took Bible lessons, surrounded her soul. Now, what would he do? It had been a long time since he figured out reading on his own. He also learned many stories such as Goethe, A Thousand and One Nights, Aesop’s Tales, and German Folk Tales in the education his father offered him, and got to know many writers and thinkers such as Homer, Ovidius, and Vergillius. His father, Johann, noticed his son’s fondness for reading, and with this joy he thanked his son by establishing a library of about 2000 volumes. Goethe, Dr. Thus, he had the opportunity to learn Faust’s different stories from his childhood.
Goethe was now taking his first steps into youth. At the age of 16-17, he started studying law in Leipzig in the spring of 1765, just like his father, with the guidance of his father. He cared about his place in society. At least the first time. He was paying attention to obeying the rules of manners, paying attention to his dress as much as possible and trying to catch a stylish harmony. Why then he soon began to neglect his lessons. Part of him was beginning to enjoy his freedom away from his family. On one side, it was open to learning with the same strength from the same freedom. He neglected his education; but Christian Fürchtegott was attending Gellert’s lectures. He was more interested in painting, German poetry and art history lessons than law. When he took drawing lessons in Frankfurt, he had the opportunity to meet with the painter Adam Friedrich, who brought him closer to his understanding of ancient art. For Goethe, with his young heart racing, this was one of the most important encounters in his life. Thereupon, Goethe learned carving and engraving techniques with a copper master with the encouragement he received. Goethe was spending time in the evenings with his friends at the Auerbach Restaurant, where it was more about enjoying his freedom away from the family. Here were the moments when he was inspired for the first part of his famous drama Faust, which will become a literary classic in the future.
First love, first poetry book
The first love fell into Goethe’s heart, this is the Leipzig days. It is not known whether it was real love or the detail that has become a part of his freedom, the feeling he felt while living was undeniable. Katchen Schönkopf was a craftsman’s daughter. This love adventure that lasted for two years left its place to a separation with the joint decision of both parties when its time was up. Prior to this separation, Goethe wrote his poems under the influence of Rococo culture. His poems were more free in style and enthusiastic. When this separation came about, he fell prey to mixed feelings, that’s when Goethe’s sentences got their share. Goethe could not intersect the feelings he felt with the underestimating, free, sarcastic style of the Rococo culture, and he became more and more cold from Leipzig. Yes, yes, he even disliked this place anymore! Goethe, with his young heart, was unaware that the pain side of love was under his grip. Pain gave way to pains. In June 1768, Goethe became seriously ill. Although sources took many different approaches to this issue, the dominant thought was that he was exhausted by the influence of his hectic social life. After this illness and his cooling from Leipzig, he returned to Frankfurt in 1770 to have a more peaceful education period. His health improved in a short time with the care of his mother and sister. Before the year ended, he brought together his poems he wrote until today and published his first poetry book called “Arnette”, an unsigned.
“Return to Frankfurt and after“
Now he returned from the land he had cooled, to the land he was born and raised in, and he knew better. With the support of his mother and sister for his life-threatening illness in Frankfurt, a long rest period would also be required for his recovery. During this rest period, he did not neglect to read, think and write. During this period when he was influenced by the idea of petitism, Faust read many mystical and alchemical books, which he influenced while writing his work. He also wrote his first theatrical comedy called “Die Mitschuldigen”. When he was now fully recovered, he went to Strasbourg to complete his education in April 1770. In Leipzig, his areas of interest outside of the law opened him up with his father. Since his childhood, Goethe, who was disturbed by the damage of communication between him and his father, paid more attention to legal education in Strasbourg and would end his education successfully in 1771. In the summer of 1771, he was preparing his doctoral dissertation in the field. He even had the opportunity to get a scholarship from his university. On August 6, 1771, he was awarded the “Fri Applaus” (High Honor) document. Goethe achieved this success with 56 theses in Latin he presented under the title of “Positiones Juris”. Each of them sounded. In particular, whether a child murderer, which he had dealt with in his 55th thesis, would be sentenced to death or not, raised the issue of weighing. Goethe would reconsider this controversial issue in the “Gretchen” tragedy. Unlike his father, he would practice this profession. He started working as Attorney at the Frankfurt Jury Court. Perhaps the reason for the literature that actively stimulated his body was that he could not continue his profession for a long time; but anyway, his path would eventually be through the law. In March 1772, after his attorney internship at the German High Court in Wetzlar, Hessen state, he opened an office in Frankfurt and worked there for 4 years.
“Poems born out of love in Strassburg”
In fact, while taking care of his school, he also devoted time to his personal interests. In particular, he never broke off with literature. For example, the art and literary theorist, Theologist Johann Gottfried Herder, was a special name that guided him in the literary field. Herder urged him to stay close to folk literature, while encouraging him to pay attention to the writing languages of writers such as Shakespeare, Ossian, and Homer. This incentive set important steps in Goethe’s literary style. Goethe, based on many syntheses, was making delicious presentations from the pieces of literature in his dough. He learned to be influenced by everything, to think about everything. For example, he was thinking about the nature of the Alsace region, whose capital is Strassburg. Her beauty was so enchanting to her! Moreover, he was discovering the organic side of nature for the first time. It was a tremendous journey for a writer’s brain. Here, the end of this journey was to produce theories on natural science. During his doctoral dissertation he was also interested in Gothic art. Especially the architect of Strassburg Cathedral, Ervin von Steinbach, impressed him with his style. The magic of some things surrounded Goethe without description. He was trying to think about the losing Gothic architectural style and to translate it into writing. The product of this work was the article he named Von Deutscher Baukunst (On German Architecture). And of course love! Love appeared before Goethe this time during a stroll in Sesenheim. She fell in love with Friederike Brion, a pastor’s daughter, the moment they met. Their relationship lasted until Goethe left Strasbourg. He was going to end his relationship as well. But anyway, the poems would remain. Moreover, those poems he wrote to Friederike, who will be known as Sesenheim Lieder, were among the first examples of poetry in German Literature and were accepted as “the beginning of a new lyrical age”.
“In business life, at the center of literary life”
Goethe was now working as a lawyer; but the main thing at the center of his life was literature. At the end of 1771, he transferred his work called “Geschichte Gottfriedens von Berlichingen mit der eisernen Hand” on paper. In 1773, he published his drama called “Götz von Berlichingen”. This work, which attracted a lot of attention and was crafted with enthusiasm under the influence of the Middle Ages, became one of the richest plays of its period and was accepted as the basic work of the “Storm and Enthusiasm” period. In May 1772, Goethe started his official work in the field of law as an assistant at the Wetzlar German Supreme Court with the encouragement of his father, and in 1772-1773 he also began to be involved with books and theater plays. He was writing critical articles in the culture and arts magazine “Frankfurter Gelehrte Anzeige”. He had such a place in his literary life that Goethe began to move away from the law again. One side of it was connected and the other side was her soul who wanted to do whatever she wanted in that moment. A colleague of Johann Christian Kestner described Goethe as follows: “Goethe is an incredibly imaginative genius. It is the creator of its own soul. He has a noble way of thinking. Goethe is a man of character. It is strange and has differences in its discourse that can bother itself. Of course it is appreciated in children, in the ladies’ room and in its behavior towards many other people. He does something he likes without considering whether someone else will like it, whether it will be fashionable, or whether his lifestyle will allow it. All difficulties are afraid of him. ”
“The Sorrows of Young Werther”
Having lost interest in the law again, Goethe was now attached to the writers of Antiquity. On the other hand, he was trying to resist the movement in his heart. Because he fell in love with Charlotte Buff, the fiancee of his friend Kestner, who said the above about him. He was aware that he was swimming in dangerous waters and could withstand the fire of the water for two months. Goethe left Wetzlar without even looking back. Goethe was thinking; The two months he lived through, all the life experiences he had so far, all the life experiences he had fit into his youth… His experiences were both natural things for every human being, and he was a writer. He could turn these experiences into a work. Sometimes a writer’s pen was beyond all lifetimes. Goethe wrote “Die Leiden des jungen Werthers” (The Sorrows of Young Werther) after a year and a half. The narrative of this book was realistic enough to cause young people to take the same path and turn to suicide. This work, which smells so much melancholy, soon made Goethe famous all over Europe. With this novel, Goethe broke new ground in German Literature, which is called “Sturm und Drang” (Stream of Enthusiasm). Goethe undoubtedly had his most productive period in the last year between his return from Wetzlar and his trip to Weimar. Epic and religious poems such as Prometheus, Mohammeds Gesang, Ganymed, as well as the Sorrows of the Young Werther; He wrote many short dramas such as Heiden und Wieland, Das Jahrmarktsfest zu Plundersweilern und Götter, as well as dramas called Clavigo and Stella. The Faust series started for the first time in this period. Among the names I mentioned, Prometheus was the most special; of course after Faust! You ask why? Because in this period, Goethe was describing the emotions in nature with his praise poems. He brought these poems, far from molds and free to measure, to world literature. Promentheus was the most important of those poems. I mean, the Sorrows of Young Werther gave a light to Goethe’s path. How pain strengthened and carried people further.
“Weimar diary of Goethe in Germany, who has a positive approach to Islam“
Goethe met a banker daughter Lili Schönemann in 1775. They got engaged again this year. He had taken a step, but the difference in lifestyle was not falling off his agenda. On top of that, the discord of their families also worn out as their relationships wore off. Goethe was almost certain that marriage would no longer find a place in his life. This subject brought nothing but anxiety to their present. To get out of this stifling feeling a little, Cristian and Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg had accepted the brothers’ offer to travel to Switzerland for months. Although he was very resistant to himself, he could not complete this engagement journey and they left in October. Goethe was now terribly disappointed. It was Karl August’s invitation to Weimar, the 18-year-old Duke, who pulled him out of this pincer. He went to Weimar in November 1775 with new hopes, for new beginnings. Goethe, who was interested in politics for a while during this period, was the duke’s private advisor. He resisted the aristocracy and, in 1776, became a member of the duke’s advisory board. In 1777 he was elected as the manager of the newly established mine commission, in 1779 he would become the manager of the road construction commission and in 1782 he would serve as the finance minister. He was exhibiting success born out of his ambition. On the one hand, his literary life continued. Goethe first started to work on interpretations of the Quran in 1771. He continued his work here. This topic was very interesting. He himself did not know how many times he read the translation of the Quran by the historian Josef von Hammer, who was especially interested in the eastern civilization. Goethe was the first literary writer in Germany to approach Islam in this respect. He hadn’t moved away from literature; but still, Goethe did not go beyond publishing a few of his poems that he gave to his magazines during his first ten years in Weimar. His work in the state was taking so much time that he had little time for literature. In addition, he was especially working for the organization of theater plays and palace festivals. Most interestingly during this period he wrote the first prose summary of the tragedy “Iphigenie auf Tauris”, the novel he called “Wilhelm Meister” and the plays “Egmont Tasso”. During this period, the literary circle interpreted Goethe’s influence on the Council of Ministers differently. Some writers thought he was an innovative politician who strived for the peasantry, while others thought he supported the country’s children joining the Prussian army and the measures taken to limit freedom of speech.
In another criticism, Goethe voted for the death penalty of a mother who killed her baby out of wedlock out of despair, while later on her compassionate behavior in the Gretchen tragedy, contrary to her belief. The sources did not provide more details about this information. Despite these criticisms, Goethe’s official achievements in service to the state also opened up official awards. In 1882, he was awarded an important aristocratic title. He also traveled to Switzerland in 1779 and many times to the Harz region. In 1785, he started his annual spa trips with a treatment in Carlsbad. In 1780 he had begun to systematically investigate scientific nature problems. He was listening to the call of nature. He used the information he gained here to solve problems in areas such as farming, mining, and coal business. Previously, his main interests were Plant Science, Bone Science, Mining, Earth Science. In 1784, Goethe managed to discover the jawbone in humans. In the same year, when he wrote his article about Granit, he drafted his work, which he named “Roman der Erde” (The Novel of the World).
“Love in Werimar”
In Weimar, where he ran away from a love, Goethe met another love. When you move, your mind and heart are also included in your body after all. In the past decade, Goethe had his most impressive relationship with Charlotte von Stein, a court bridesmaid. Charlotte, who lost four of her seven children, was also seven years older than Goethe and had an agreed marriage. An impressive relationship had begun between Goethe and Charlotte. Charlotte first taught Goethe court etiquette as an educator, and over time she had always been comforting about her inner unrest. On the one hand, he was always with him in maintaining his discipline in his work. It is not known whether this was a love, or a close relationship brought about by an innocent friendship; but for many authors there was no sexual relationship between Goethe and Charlotte. Because Charlotte had always rejected Goethe about this. What they experienced in private is unknown; but this relationship left about 2000 letters and notepads in the history of literature. And of course, poems from Goethe … The poems Goethenin wrote to Charlotte would be the most well-known poems of his time. Of course every beginning had an end. This relationship ended with Goethe’s secret trip to Rome in 1786.
In 1786 Gothe was in an identity crisis. His relationship with Charlotte was gradually turning into a void, which affected his profession and the difficulties of his palace life even more disturbed. He was thinking of putting his life, which turned into a vicious circle, in order by taking a trip to Italy. In September 1786, he informed only his maid Philipp Seidel and set out. On the other hand, he was a world-renowned writer thanks to Werther; He did not use his name during his travel. Speaking of Verona, Vicenza, Venice, it was November when he finally arrived in Rome. Goethe stayed in Rome until the end of November on this trip to Naples and Sicily. Here, he was researching the subtleties of Roman and Greek art in detail. This trip was good for him. In addition to his thoughts and researches on natural science, he also carried out comprehensive studies to put forward scientific theories on human anatomy. Of course, this journey took a long time. In this case, Goethe had already given his resignation. Speaking of Siena, Florence, Parma, Milan, Goethe returned to Wierma two years later. In Italy, art seemed to flow in Goethe’s blood. He learned the building and art works of the Renaissance and Ancient periods. He was so admiringly searching, so fascinated! He especially admired Raffael and the architect of the time, Andrea Pallidio. He continued his drawing works with great enthusiasm. It was during this Italian period that Goethe made about 850 drawings. Art and literature were intertwined in his life.
He set out on this trip to find himself, and that’s what happened. It was here that Goethe realized exactly for the first time that he was born as a writer as well as an artist, despite all the successful works he wrote. With this awareness, he started to be more attentive to literature studies. Continuing his other work, he turned to the rhyme-style work “Iphigenie” in prose. He completed his “Egmont” work, which started 12 years ago and could not end, here. Italy was truly “rebirth,” as Goethe himself defined it. He had found the answers to all of his questions, who he was, what he wanted to do, what was appropriate for him. Also, in this period, Goethe got out of the Storm and Enthusiasm period and switched to Classicism. It wasn’t just Goethe’s step. Thus, German Literature switched to Classicism.
“Goethe got married”
Goethe began a love affair with 23-year-old Christiane Vulpius a few weeks after returning from Italy travel. Moreover, it was not that simple. He saw Christiane as his life partner. In December 1789, they had a son named “August”. The four children born after him would die just a few hours after opening their eyes to the world. Goethe knew this pain from his childhood, and he no longer had a childhood to take shelter and withdraw from. Moreover, the Weimar society could not accept Christiane, whom he described as less educated and had simple relationships. When they looked at this relationship, which they described as inappropriate, from its illegitimate side, they saw him as a fun-loving and simple person. The society could not see the naturalness, joy and love that Goethe saw in him. Regardless, Goethe always chose to love his child’s mother Christiane, whom he adopted as my life partner. They were married in 1806. Thus, their relationship was legitimized and society was able to accept Christiane. Goethe maintained his relationship with Christiane until his death in 1816.
But even this defenseless marriage had its roughness. Goethe couldn’t resist being attracted to Minna Herzlieb, the 18th daughter of the caretaker of the bookseller Fromman in Jena, in her marriage in which everything went well. The year was 1807. Only a year had passed since their wedding.
This was the story of Goethe’s marriage, who never knew where to put the marriage in his life.
“Return to Italy official duties”
The 2-year disappearance of course meant losing your job. However, when he returned, the Duke forgave him of many official duties. Goethe returned to his chairmanship of the board and was able to maintain his political influence. In addition to this, he took many roles in cultural and scientific fields such as managing drawing schools and supervising official building activities. The management of the Weimar Palace Theater, which he conducted from 1791 until 1817, was one of them. He also took part in the Duke’s University of Jena. In 1807, when assigned to oversee the University of Jena, Goethe first sought the expansion of the Faculty of Natural Sciences. Many special names such as Friedrich Schiller, George Hegel, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Schelling and many more were always thanks to Goethe. When the year marked 1789, which Goethe viewed with a negative view, the French Revolution shook the whole of Europe deeply. He would later utter the following words: “Herhangi büyük bir devrimin, asla ulusun değil, tamamen hükümetin hatası olduğuna inandım. Hükümetler, devamlı olarak adalete uygun olup, geliştikleri sürece, devrimler tamamen gereksiz hale gelir; öyle ki onları zamana uygun yeniliklerle karşılarlar ve alt kesimden zorunluluklar diretilinceye kadar, çok uzun süre mücadelede bulunmazlar.”
In 1789, Goethe accompanied the Duke, who set out for the first war of alliance against revolutionary France, at his request. During this mission he spent 3 months, he saw the burning cold face of war and the misery. This moment, which resulted in the victory of France, lived to the bone. Not that much, he spent another three months in the summer of 1793 to besiege Mainz. The duke also joined Basel’s Prussia-France Peace Treaty in 1796. This 10-year period of peace provided the brightest era of the Weimar Classic.
“Return of Italy literature”
Goethe’s life could be divided into before and after the Italian trip. Goethe, who was interested in natural sciences, published his essay called “Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklaren” (Explanation of the Morphological Structure of Plants) in 1790. He also started his researches on Color Theory, which he would not lose interest in until the end of his life.
Goethe, who discovered that he was born to be a writer, entered a stagnant period in literary work. The main reasons for this were his private life, the distancing of his old friends, the shock brought about by the revolution, and most importantly, the instant success of his works that contradicted his new understanding of art. Goethe included “Römischen Elegien” (Roman Laments), a compilation of erotic poems that he created shortly after his return, which he made his passion for Christiane into his works in the 1790s. His second trip to Italy revealed his “Venedig Epigrams”, in which he compiled humorous poems on the general situation of Europe. In 1792-1793 he organized his epic “Reineke Fuchs”, which he wrote in the form of lines with six syllables. The cold face of the revolution, especially when it was witnessed so closely, was not something to be missed. Under the influence of the revolution in 1791, such as “Der Gros-Cophta” (Big Chop), 1793 “Der Bürgergeneral” (Citizen General) and the piecemeal “Die Aufgeregten”, he wrote many comedies against the revolution.
“Cooperation with Friedrich Schiller”
In the summer of 1794, Friedrich Schiller, a history professor living near Jena, was publishing a culture and arts magazine called “Horen”. In fact, they had never had a relationship with Goethe other than meeting several times; but still offered him cooperation. Goethe accepted the offer.
They especially agreed to reject the narrative of the revolution and adopted the orientation towards Antiquity as the highest art style. An intense cooperation was born due to their agreements. Goethe interpreted this collaboration with someone 10 years younger as follows: It was an environment where both authors benefited from each other. Schiller accompanied Goethe’s novel Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship Years with a critical approach, while also encouraging him about the continuity of his work “Faust”. Goethe also influenced Schiller in his work “Wallenstein”. Joint projects were also always important. Goethe published his work titled “Unterhaltung deutscher Ausgewanderten” (Conversations of German Immigrants) in addition to his well-known works in this period, and his epic poem “Hermann und Dorothea”, which he wrote with six syllables, reflected the current events of the period. With this work, he gained the classic reader success. He also wrote his most famous ballads such as “Der Schatzgraber” (Treasure Hunter) and “Der Zauberlehrling” (Sorcerer’s Scream). The Weimar Classical Period, marked by Goethe, ended with the death of Schiller in 1805.
“Goethe and Faust after Schiller”
Schiller’s death was a huge loss in Goethe’s life. On the one hand, he was shaken by different diseases such as kidney pain, on the other hand his travel companion was suffering from the loss of his writer friend. It was one of the events that left a mark in Goethe’s life. Another was the war that broke out with Nopoleon Bonaparte. His tendency towards pessimism, which he described as “my dark side”, lived with him at such moments as if he were an organ. For on these war days, Goethe envisioned that he and the Duke were wandering across Germany, sometimes seeking refuge, sometimes seeking refuge. It must be made clear that Goethe perhaps most wanted to be a universal genius. But he could not manage to silence the millions of monsters that made a loud noise within himself. However, in 1806 he was shaken off and prepared a new compilation of his works. Thus, he finally managed to complete the first volume of “Faust”. Now his biggest supporter, Schiller, slept well where he slept. He started writing his autobiography in 1809. In this biography titled “Aus meinem Leben Dichtung und Wahrheit” (Literature and Truth from My Life), Bettina Brentano, who appeared in Wimar, would support the course with the information she gained from Goethe’s mother about her youth. However, his research on Color Theory, which did not come out again after he entered his life a year later, finally turned into a work called “Farbenlehre” (Color Theory). It was as if there was another Goethe in his personality; He had mentally turned himself into the Near East when the people were revolting against the French Revolution. He started learning Arabic and Persian. He had remembered the Qur’an. He had read the Iranian Poet Hafis. His latest novel “Die Wahlverwandschaften” (Closeness of the Heart) would also bear the traces of the inner experiences of his period.
“They instilled a second youth in me and elevated me back to writing.”
There was also Carl Friedrich Zelter. Goethe’s voice sounded nicer than Beethoven’s. Their 30-year-long correspondence (1832), which began in 1799, would offer Goethe a lot in terms of friendship, not just music.
Goethe was on a journey around the Rhein and Main in 1814. Goethe advised banker Johann von Willemer and his partner Marianne Jung to marry; they too had married before a few weeks, moreover, in her presence. They met now in Frankfurt, when Goethe was 65 years old. Goethe had never felt his age, neither his age nor the passing of years… It was natural that he now fell in love with Mariana. Marianna had suddenly become a common fairy in her literature. He came back to visit the next year. However, he would not come again. This was the last time Goethe saw his hometown. He did not respond to the next invitation; however, he wrote the poems “Gül and the Nightingale”, “Love and Wine” until he finished “West-östlicher Divan” (East West Divan). When Goethe emigrated from this world, Marianna would say that these love poems were written to her.
“Goethe and his works after his wife Christiane”
Christane closed his eyes to life in 1716, after a long illness. He was one of the missing that left a mark on his life. Goethe resigned from the directorship of the Palace Theater in 1817. His bride took care of his health. Contrary to his pessimism in the face of the Napoleonic wars, the duke’sness was unharmed. The diaries he kept and the notes he always kept, he dictated the book he called “Italienische Reise” (Travel to Italy). Perhaps it was the most important period of his life. In 1821 he published “Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre” (Wilhelm Meister’s Traveling Years), a compilation of his small-scale novels. In 1823, he contracted an inflammation of the pericardium. When he was on rest, he felt younger than ever in a spiritual sense. The young old Goethe proposed to Ulrike von Levetzow, who was 19, when he met his mother in Karlsbad. He wrote about his frustration when he was not accepted in the work he named “Marienbader Elegie” (Marienbad Network). He wanted this incident to remain the last disappointment in his life. He closed himself in and became still. In this calm atmosphere, the second episode of “Faust” would re-evaluate. He hardly ever wrote, he dictated it. The loyal young poet Johann had entrusted Peter Eckermann with his knowledge, lifestyle and background.
“He lost his son”
Goethe suffered a death in 1828, in which he scratched another life. This time he lost his son Karl August. He had to endure the death of his son while in Rome. I think this was the worst of all losses.
In the same year, he completed the second episode of “Faust”. Faust was the most important work in his life. Formally, it was a stage piece. Like many of his poems, it had great meanings.
Natural science, the subject of plants, how plants grow, color theory has never given up. A few weeks before he died, Ferdinand wrote to Wackenroder: “I am deeply concerned with the question of in what way plants will undergo metamorphosis, in a variety of ways, adhering to one or the same rule, and to what extent it is possible to approach the organic-chemical change of life. However, it seems obvious to me that the moisture absorbed by the plant roots is changed by it, just as plants react to light, so the desire that you innocently oppose has arisen to see more clearly the type of wind that inflates iscotos. “
“Goethe is dead”
Goethe died of a heart attack on March 22, 1832, as stated in the sources. As it was conveyed to his doctor Carl Vogel, who was not with him at the time of death, Goethe’s last word was “More light!” had happened. He was buried in Weimar Cemetery on March 26.